String bikinis are one of the most popular variations of bikini. Margaret MacDonald says Celsus' study of Christian scripture led him to focus on Mary Magdalene as the witness to the resurrection, as someone deluded by the "sorcery" by which Jesus did miracles, and as someone who then becomes one of Jesus' primary "instigators" and "perpetrators". Archived from the original on October 20, But the hair on his head began to grow again after it had been shaved. New Testament scholar Craig Blomberg and other complementarians assert there are three primary texts that are critical to the traditional view of women and women's roles: In Greece slaves were required to work as prostitutes and had no right to decline.
Variations of the term are used to describe stylistic variations for promotional purposes and industry classifications, including monokini, microkini , tankini , trikini , pubikini , bandeaukini and skirtini. A man's brief swimsuit may also be referred to as a bikini. In Pompeii , depictions of Venus wearing a bikini were discovered in the Casa della Venere,    in the tablinum of the House of Julia Felix ,  and in an atrium garden of Via Dell'Abbondanza.
Swimming or bathing outdoors was discouraged in the Christian West , so there was little demand or need for swimming or bathing costumes until the 18th century. The bathing gown of the 18th century was a loose ankle-length full-sleeve chemise -type gown made of wool or flannel that retained coverage and modesty.
In , Australian swimmer and performer Annette Kellerman was arrested on a Boston beach for wearing form-fitting sleeveless one-piece knitted swimming tights that covered her from neck to toe, a costume she adopted from England,  although it became accepted swimsuit attire for women in parts of Europe by Inspired by the introduction of females into Olympic swimming he designed a close-fitting costume with shorts for the bottom and short sleeves for the top.
During the s and s, people began to shift from "taking in the water" to "taking in the sun", at bathhouses and spas, and swimsuit designs shifted from functional considerations to incorporate more decorative features. Rayon was used in the s in the manufacture of tight-fitting swimsuits,  but its durability, especially when wet, proved problematic. With the development of new clothing materials, particularly latex and nylon , swimsuits gradually began hugging the body through the s, with shoulder straps that could be lowered for tanning.
Women's swimwear of the s and s incorporated increasing degrees of midriff exposure. The Hollywood film Three on a Match featured a midriff baring two piece bathing suit. Teen magazines of late s and s featured similar designs of midriff-baring suits and tops. However, midriff fashion was stated as only for beaches and informal events and considered indecent to be worn in public.
Wartime production during World War II required vast amounts of cotton, silk, nylon, wool, leather, and rubber. French designers sought to deliver fashions that matched the liberated mood of the people. He announced that it was the "world's smallest bathing suit. The newspapers were full of news about it and Reard hoped for the same with his design.
His design consisted of a two triangles of fabric forming a bra, and two triangular pieces of fabric covering the mons pubis and the buttocks connected by string. Photographs of Bernardini and articles about the event were widely carried by the press.
The International Herald Tribune alone ran nine stories on the event. For women, wearing a bikini signaled a kind of second liberation. There was really nothing sexual about this. It was instead a celebration of freedom and a return to the joys in life. The History of Paradise on Earth , . Despite the garment's initial success in France, women worldwide continued to wear traditional one-piece swimsuits.
In , Eric Morley organized the Festival Bikini Contest , a beauty contest and swimwear advertising opportunity at that year's Festival of Britain. The press, welcoming the spectacle, referred to it as Miss World ,   a name Morley registered as a trademark. The bikini was banned on the French Atlantic coastline, Spain, Italy,  Portugal and Australia, and was prohibited or discouraged in a number of US states.
It's at the razor's edge of decency.
Women Who Suck DickIncreasingly common glamour shots of popular actresses and models on either side of the Atlantic played a large part in bringing the bikini into the mainstream. In Europe, year-old Brigitte Bardot wore scanty bikinis by contemporary standards in the French film Manina, la fille sans voiles "Manina, the girl unveiled". The promotion for the film, released in France in March , drew more attention to Bardot's bikinis than to the film itself.
By the time the film was released in the United States in it was re-titled Manina, the Girl in the Bikini. Bardot was also photographed wearing a bikini on the beach during the Cannes Film Festival. Working with her husband and agent Roger Vadim she garnered significant attention with photographs of her wearing a bikini on every beach in the south of France.
Similar photographs were taken of Anita Ekberg and Sophia Loren , among others. According to The Guardian , Bardot's photographs in particular turned Saint-Tropez into the beachwear capital of the world,  with Bardot identified as the original Cannes bathing beauty.
No , wore a white bikini , which became known as the " Dr. No bikini ". It became one of the most famous bikinis of all time and an iconic moment in cinematic and fashion history. As a result of starring in Dr. No as the first Bond girl , I was given the freedom to take my pick of future roles and to become financially independent.
Stretch nylon bikini briefs and bras complemented the adolescent boutique fashions of the s, allowing those to be minimal. It wasn't so much like lingerie anymore. According to French fashion historian Olivier Saillard, this was due to "the power of women, and not the power of fashion". In , Miss Maryland Jamie Fox became the first contestant in 50 years to compete in a two-piece swimsuit at the Miss America Pageant.
Full Throttle made the two-piece "the millennial equivalent of the power suit", according to Gina Bellafonte of The New York Times , . According to Beth Dincuff Charleston, research associate at the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, "The bikini represents a social leap involving body consciousness, moral concerns, and sexual attitudes.
Although child-sized bikinis appeared in the s, in many European countries, swimsuits below size 11 are commonly not sold with a separate top, but in the United States, Britain, and Canada, it has often been considered unacceptable for girls in late childhood ages 7—11 to go topless. The film An Evening in Paris is mostly remembered because it featured Bollywood actress Sharmila Tagore as the first Indian actress to wear a bikini on film.
Indian women wear bikinis when they vacation abroad or in Goa without the family. Despite the conservative ideas prevalent in India, bikinis have become more popular. In summer, when women take up swimming, often in a public space, a lot of tankinis, shorts and single-piece swimsuits are sold. By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the Chinese bikini industry became a serious international threat for the Brazilian bikini industry.
For most parts of the Middle East , bikinis are either banned or is highly controversial. In , In , when Lebanese magazine Ash-Shabaka printed a bikini-clad woman on the cover they had to make a second version with only the face of the model. While the name "bikini" was at first applied only to beachwear that revealed the wearer's navel, today the fashion industry considers any two-piece swimsuit a bikini.
Bikinis can and have been made out of almost every possible clothing material, and the fabrics and other materials used to make bikinis are an essential element of their design. DuPont 's introduction of Lycra spandex in the s completely changed how bikinis were designed and worn, as according to Kelly Killoren Bensimon, a former model and author of The Bikini Book , "the advent of Lycra allowed more women to wear a bikini In a single fashion show in , there were two-piece suits with cropped tank tops instead of the usual skimpy bandeaux, suits that resembled bikinis from the front and one-pieces from the back, suspender straps , ruffles , and deep navel-baring cutouts.
To meet the fast pace of demands, some manufacturers now offer made-to-order bikinis ready in as few as seven minutes. There is a range of distinct bikini styles available — string bikinis , monokinis topless or top and bottom connected , Trikinis three pieces instead of two , tankinis tank top , bikini bottom , camikinis camisole top , bikini bottom , bandeaukini bandeau top, bikini bottom , skirtini bikini top, skirt bottom , "granny bikini" bikini top, boy shorts bottom , hikinis also hipkini , seekinis transparent , minikinis, microkinis, miniminis, slingshots or suspender bikinis , thong bottoms, tie-sides a variety of string bikini and teardrops.
Bikinis have become a major component of marketing various women's sports. Sports bikinis have gained popularity since the s. In , the bikini became the official uniform of women's Olympic beach volleyball. Much of the interest was because of the sex appeal of bikini-clad players along with their athletic ability. However, the FIVB's mandating of the bikini ran into problems.
Some sports officials consider it exploitative and impractical in colder weather. They refused to wear bikinis. Richard Baker, the federation spokesperson, said that "many of these countries have religious and cultural requirements so the uniform needed to be more flexible". The bikini remains preferred by most players  and corporate sponsors.
Olympic gold medal winner Kerry Walsh said, "I love our uniforms. One feminist viewpoint sees the bikini uniform as objectification of women athletes. I'm sure the male spectators love it, but I find it a little bit offensive. Sports journalism expert Kimberly Bissell conducted a study on the camera angles used during the Summer Olympic Games beach volleyball games.
Bissell theorized that the appearance of the players draws fans attention more than their actual athleticism. From the s to mids, men's contest formats were often supplemented with women's beauty contests or bikini shows. The winners earned titles like Miss Body Beautiful, Miss Physical Fitness and Miss Americana, and also presented trophies to the winners of the men's contest.
Costumes are regulation "posing trunks" bikini briefs for both men and women. Women in athletics often wear bikinis of similar size as those worn in beach volleyball. Amy Acuff , a US high-jumper, wore a black leather bikini instead of a track suit at the Summer Olympics. String bikinis and other revealing clothes are common in surfing , though most surfing bikinis are more robust with more coverage than sunning bikinis.
In , American swimsuit mogul Fred Cole, owner of Cole of California, told Time that bikinis were designed for "diminutive Gallic women", as because "French girls have short legs Her figure remained in vogue in the 21st century. The fitness boom of the s led to one of the biggest leaps in the evolution of the bikini. According to Mills, "The leg line became superhigh, the front was superlow, and the straps were superthin.
In , Suzy Menkes , then Fashion Editor of the International Herald Tribune , suggested that women had begun to "revolt" against the "body ideal" and bikini "exposure. Certain types of underwear are described as bikini underwear and designed for men and women. For women, bikini or bikini-style underwear is underwear that is similar in size and form to a regular bikini. It can refer to virtually any undergarment that provides less coverage to the midriff than lingerie , panties or knickers,  especially suited to clothing such as crop tops.
For men, bikini briefs are undergarments that are smaller and more revealing than men's classic briefs. Men's bikini briefs can be low- or high-side that are usually lower than true waist, often at hips, and usually have no access pouch or flap, legs bands at tops of thighs. Swimwear and underwear have similar design considerations, both being form-fitting garments.
The main difference is that, unlike underwear, swimwear is open to public view. As the swimsuit was evolving, the underwear started to change. Between and , swimsuit lengths followed the changes in underwear designs. By s underwear styles for both women and men were influenced by the new brief models of swimwear from Europe.
Although the waistband was still above the navel, the leg openings of the panty brief were cut in an arc to rise from the crotch to the hip joint. The brief served as a template for most all variations of panties for the rest of the century. The first underwire bra was developed in In Maidenform introduced the first official bust enhancing bra. By the s, the bikini swimsuit influenced panty styles and coincided with the cut of the new lower rise jeans and pants.
By the s the design of the French-cut panty pushed the waistband back up to the natural waistline and the rise of the leg openings was nearly as high French Cut panties come up to the waist, has a high cut leg, and usually are full in the rear . As with the bra and other type of lingerie, manufacturers of the last quarter of the century marketed panty styles that were designed primarily for their sexual allure.
The male body was celebrated through advertising campaigns for brands such as Calvin Klein , particularly by photographers Bruce Weber and Herb Ritts. The term men's bikini is sometimes used to describe swim briefs. Men's bikinis can have high or low side panels, and string sides or tie sides. Most lack a button or flap front. Unlike swim briefs, bikinis are not designed for drag reduction and generally lack a visible waistband.
Suits less than 1. The posing brief standard to bodybuilding competitions is an example of this style. Male punk rock musicians have performed on the stage wearing women's bikini briefs. Male bikini tops also exist and are often used as visual gags. The term is inspired by the word bikini. Bikini waxing is the epilation of pubic hair beyond the bikini line by use of waxing.
The bikini line delineates the part of a woman's pubic area to be covered by the bottom part of a bikini, which means any pubic hair visible beyond the boundaries of a swimsuit. As popularity of bikinis grew, the acceptability of pubic hair diminished. Depending on the style of bikini-bottom and the amount of skin visible outside the bikini,  pubic hair may be styled into several styles    — American waxing removal of pubic hair from the sides, top of the thighs, and under the navel , French waxing leaves only a vertical strip in front , Brazilian waxing removal of all hair in the pelvic area, particularly suitable for thong bottoms.
The tan lines created by the wearing of a bikini while tanning are known as a bikini tan. A innovation of tan-through swimwear uses fabric which is perforated with thousands of micro holes that are nearly invisible to the naked eye, but which let enough sunlight through to produce a line-free tan. As bikinis leave most of the body exposed to potentially dangerous UV radiation, overexposure can cause sunburn , skin cancer , as well as other acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eyes, and immune system.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the women's bathing suit. For the island group, see Bikini Atoll. For other uses, see Bikini disambiguation. Main article: History of the bikini. See also: Bikini in popular culture. Loose chemises from the s. Annette Kellerman started the form-fitting swimwear trend, Actress Jane Wyman in beachwear that bares legs and midriff, As subsequent history would show, the bikini was more than a skimpy garment.
It was a state of mind. Chinese cheerleaders at Chaoyang Park. Indian model Sofia Hayat in photoshoot. Bikini variants. Bikini is the uniform for both male and female bodybuilders. Body image and Bikini contest. Underwear as outerwear. Women's underwear. Bikini waxing. Bikini waxing styles. Sun tanning. Fashion portal Swimming portal. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Retrieved August 15, February 13, EmBodying the Bomb". Genders Journal. Archived from the original on Retrieved 17 May Fact Sheet". Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 13 August Bikini Story first ed. Parkstone International. Goddesses in Ancient India first ed. Atlantic Highlands, N. Humanities Press.
Retrieved September 17, The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved July 23, October 31, Retrieved November 21, July 3, Retrieved August 20, A History of the Bikini". May 1, Retrieved December 3, Lal; Kate Fortune The Pacific Islands: University of Hawaii Press.
Retrieved July 5, Nonfiction Reading Comprehension: Social Studies, Grade 5. Teacher Created Resources. Studies in Etymology and Etiology. Universidad de Alicante. Bikini Story. The History of English. Playing with Words: Humour in the English Language. Business Insider. Retrieved May 8, Ancient Inventions. Ballantine Books. Val di Noto.
Retrieved August 29, Women's Sports: A History. Columbia University Press. World Heritage Sites. Archived from the original on December 23, Retrieved March 7, Image Gallery". Information concerning the rooms in Casa della Venere in Bikini".
Classical Art. Oxford University Press. Ancient Roman Gardens. Dumbarton Oaks. July 5, American Heritage Inc. Archived from the original on September 9, Retrieved November 13, The Houston Chronicle. Textiles 9 ed. Prentice Hall. Hagar and Ishmael are sent away again and this time they do not return.
Frymer-Kensky says "This story starkly illuminates the relations between women in a patriarchy. Sarah has the power, her actions are legal not compassionate, but her motives are clear: Genesis 19 narrates that Lot and his two daughters live in Sodom, and are visited by two angels. A mob gathers, and Lot offers them his daughters to protect the angels, but the angels intervene.
Sodom is destroyed , and the family goes to live in a cave. Since there are no men around except Lot, the daughters decide to make him drink wine and have him unknowingly impregnate them. They each have a son, Moab and Ben-Ammi. Potiphar's Wife , whose false accusations of Joseph leads to his imprisonment. Pharaoh's Daughter , who rescues and cares for the infant Moses.
Puah and Shiphrah , two Hebrew midwives who disobey Pharao 's command to kill all newborn Hebrew boys. God favors them for this. Moses' wife Zipporah , who saves his life when God intends to kill him. Miriam , Moses' sister, a prophetess. The book of Joshua tells the story of Rahab the prostitute zonah , a resident of Jericho, who houses two spies sent by Joshua to prepare for an attack on the city.
The king of Jericho knew the spies were there and sent soldiers to her house to capture them, but she hid them, sent the soldiers off in misdirection, and lied to the King on their behalf. She said to the spies, "I know that the Lord has given you this land and that a great fear of you has fallen on us, so that all who live in this country are melting in fear because of you.
We have heard how the Lord dried up the water of the Red Sea for you when you came out of Egypt, and what you did to Sihon and Og, the two kings of the Amorites east of the Jordan, whom you completely destroyed. Now then, please swear to me by the Lord that you will show kindness to my family, because I have shown kindness to you.
Give me a sure sign that you will spare the lives of my father and mother, my brothers and sisters, and all who belong to them—and that you will save us from death. She did comply, and she and her whole family were saved before the city was captured and burned Joshua 6.
Judges chapters 13 to 16 tell the story of Samson who meets Delilah and his end in chapter Samson was a Nazarite , a specially dedicated individual, from birth, yet his story indicates he violated every requirement of the Nazarite vow. Samson travels to Gaza and "fell in love with a woman in the Valley of Sorek whose name was Delilah. Each one of us will give you eleven hundred shekels of silver.
Binding him with bronze shackles, they set him to grinding grain in the prison. But the hair on his head began to grow again after it had been shaved. But Samson prayed, "O Lord, remember me" and he pushed the columns holding up the Temple and killed everyone there. The story does not call Delilah a Philistine.
The valley of Sorek was Danite territory that had been overrun by Philistines, so the population there would have been mixed. Delilah was likely an Israelite or the story would have said otherwise. The Philistines offered Delilah an enormous sum of money to betray Samson. Delilah uses emotional blackmail and Samson's genuine love for her to betray him. No other Hebrew biblical hero is ever defeated by an Israelite woman.
Samson does not suspect, perhaps because he cannot think of a woman as dangerous, but Delilah is determined, bold and very dangerous indeed. The entire Philistine army could not bring him down. Yet Delilah did. The Levite's concubine in the book of Judges is "vulnerable as she is only a minor wife, a concubine". Frymer-Kensky says this story is also an example of class intersecting with gender and power: The Levite and his concubine travel to a strange town where they are vulnerable because they travel alone without extended family to rescue them; strangers attack.
To protect the Levite, his host offers his daughter to the mob and the Levite sends out his concubine. Trible says "The story makes us realize that in those days men had ultimate powers of disposal over their women. The concubine is raped to death. The Levite butchers her body and uses it to rouse Israel against the tribe of Benjamin. Civil war follows nearly wiping out an entire tribe.
To resuscitate it, hundreds of women are captured and forced into marriage. Fryman-Kensky says, "Horror follows horror. According to Old Testament scholar Jerome Creach, some feminist critiques of Judges say the Bible gives tacit approval to violence against women by not speaking out against these acts. In the Book of Genesis, Tamar is Judah 's daughter—in—law.
She was married to Judah's son Er , but Er died, leaving Tamar childless. Under levirate law, Judah's next son, Onan , was told to have sex with Tamar and give her a child, but when Onan slept with her, he "spilled his seed on the ground" rather than give her a child that would belong to his brother.
Then Onan died too. One day Judah travels to town Timnah to shear his sheep. When Judah saw her, he thought she was a prostitute, for she had covered her face. Not realizing that she was his daughter-in-law, he went over to her by the roadside and said, 'Come now, let me sleep with you'. So Judah slept with her and she became pregnant.
Then she went home and put on her widow's weeds again. Months later when it was discovered she was pregnant, she was accused of prostitution zonah , and was set to be burned. Instead, she sent Judah's pledge offerings to him saying "I am pregnant by the man who owns these.
The story of Jephthah 's daughter in Book of Judges begins as an archetypal biblical hagiography of a hero. Jephthah is the son of a marginal woman, a prostitute zonah , and as such he is vulnerable. He lives in his father's house, but when his father dies, his half-brothers reject him. According to Frymer-Kensky, "This is not right.
In the ancient Near East prostitutes could be hired as surrogate wombs as well as sex objects. Laws and contracts regulated the relationship between the child of such a prostitute and children of the first wife Jephthah has been wronged, but he has no recourse.
He must leave home. Nevertheless, Jephthah goes out into the world and makes a name for himself as a mighty warrior—a hero of Israel. The threat of the Ammonites is grave. The brothers acknowledge their wrongdoing to gain his protection. Frymer-Kensky says Jephthah's response reveals negotiation skills and deep piety.
Then he attempts to negotiate peace with Ammon but fails. War comes, with all of Israel vulnerable. Before the battle he makes a battle vow: I will offer to YHWH. Jephthah's reaction expresses his horror and sense of tragedy in three key expressions of mourning, utter defeat, and reproach. He reproaches her and himself, but foresees only his doom in either keeping or breaking his vow.
Jephthah's daughter responds to his speech and she becomes a true heroine of this story. They are both good, yet tragedy happens. Frymer-Kensky summarizes: Some scholars have interpreted this story to mean that Jephthah's daughter was not actually sacrificed, but kept in seclusion. The story of Tamar is a literary unit consisting of seven parts. According to Frymer-Kensky, the story "has received a great deal of attention as a superb piece of literature, and several have concentrated on explicating the artistry involved.
Amnon desires Tamar deeply. Immediately after explaining Amnon's desire the narrator first uses the term sister to reveal Tamar is not only Absalom's sister but is also Amnon's sister by another mother. Phyllis Trible says the storyteller "stresses family ties for such intimacy exacerbates the coming tragedy.
Then comes a plan from his cousin Jonadab , "a very crafty man. Jonadab's scheme to aid Amnon pivots on David the king. Amnon pretends to be sick and David comes to see him. The king orders it sending a message to Tamar. Alone with her brother she is vulnerable, but Tamar claims her voice. Frymer-Kensky says Tamar speaks to Amnon with wisdom, but she speaks to a foolish man.
She attempts to dissuade him, then offers the alternative of marriage, and tells him to appeal to the king. He does not listen, and rapes her. Amnon is immediately full of shame and angrily throws Tamar out. Tamar is desolate: King David is furious but he does nothing to avenge his daughter or punish his son. Frymer Kensky says "The reader of the story who expects that the state will provide protection for the vulnerable now sees that the state cannot control itself.
Absalom then rebels against his father and is also killed. In the Book of Samuel, Bathsheba is a married woman who is noticed by king David. He has her brought to him, and she becomes pregnant. The text in the Bible does not explicitly state whether Bathsheba consented to sex. In the Book of Kings, when David is old, she and the prophet Nathan convince David to let Solomon take the throne instead of an older brother.
The story of Eve begins in Genesis 2: I will make a helper suitable for him' Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man That is why a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they become one flesh. Adam and his wife were both naked, and they felt no shame.
Their eyes are opened and they realize they are naked, and they make coverings from fig leaves. When God comes to the garden, they hide, and God knows something is wrong. Both attempts to shift the blame, but they end up bearing the responsibility, each receiving their own curses, and getting thrown out of the garden together.
Genesis 2. According to Near Eastern scholar Carol Meyers , "Perhaps more than any other part of the Bible, [the story of Eve] has influenced western notions of gender and identity. Lindsey says "women have born a greater burden for 'original sin' Eve's creation from Adam's rib, second in order, with God's "curse" at the expulsion is a stubbornly persistent frame used to justify male supremacy.
The Book of Judges tells the story of Deborah , as a prophet Judges 4: She was based in the region between Ramah in Benjamin and Bethel in the land of Ephraim. Judges 4: The narrative describes the people of Israel as having been oppressed by Jabin , the king of Canaan , for twenty years. Deborah sends a prophetic message to Barak to raise an army and fight them, but Barak refuses to do so without her.
Deborah declares his refusal means the glory of the victory will belong to a woman. Sisera had summoned all his men and iron chariots, but he was routed and fled on foot. Sisera, meanwhile, fled on foot to the tent of Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, because there was an alliance between Jabin king of Hazor and the family of Heber the Kenite.
He receives no answer from dreams , prophets, or the Urim and Thummim. Having driven out all necromancers and magicians from Israel, Saul searches for a witch anonymously and in disguise. His search leads him to a woman of Endor, who claims that she can see the ghost of the deceased prophet Samuel rising from the abode of the dead.
The voice of the prophet's ghost at first frightens the witch of Endor, and after complaining of being disturbed, berates Saul for disobeying God, and predicts Saul's downfall. The spirit reiterates a pre-mortem prophecy by Samuel, adding that Saul will perish with his whole army in battle the next day. Saul is terrified. The next day, his army is defeated as prophesied, and Saul commits suicide.
Although Saul is depicted as an enemy to witches and diviners , the Witch of Endor comforts Saul when she sees his distress and insists on feeding him before he leaves. Jezebel is described in the Book of Kings 1 Kings According to the Books of Kings, Jezebel incited her husband King Ahab to abandon the worship of Yahweh and encourage worship of the deities Baal and Asherah instead.
Jezebel persecuted the prophets of Yahweh, and fabricated evidence of blasphemy against an innocent landowner who refused to sell his property to King Ahab, causing the landowner to be put to death. For these transgressions against the God and people of Israel, Jezebel met a gruesome death— thrown out of a window by members of her own court retinue, and the flesh of her corpse eaten by stray dogs.
In the biblical story, Jezebel became associated with false prophets. In some interpretations, her dressing in finery and putting on makeup  led to the association of the use of cosmetics with "painted women" or prostitutes. Athaliah was the daughter of Jezebel and King Ahab.
Her story is told in 2 Kings 8: According to these passages, Athaliah married Jehoram , King of Judah. After her husband died, Athaliah's son Ahaziah came to the throne of Judah, but he reigned for only a year before being killed. When he died, Athaliah usurped the throne and ruled as Queen of Judah for six years. In an attempt to consolidate her position, she ordered all the royal house of Judah to be put to death, but unbeknownst to her, Jehosheba , Ahaziah's sister, managed to rescue from the purge one of Athaliah's grandsons with Jehoram of Judah, named Jehoash , who was only one year old.
Jehoash was raised in secret by Jehosheba's husband, a priest named Jehoiada. After six years of raising the boy in secret, Jehoiada revealed his existence and had him proclaimed King. Athaliah denounced this as treason, but a successful revolt was organised in his favour and Athaliah was put to death at the entrance of her palace.
One day Elisha asked his servant what could be done for her and the servant said, she has no son. So Elisha called her and said, this time next year she would have a son. She does, the boy grows, and then one day he dies. She placed the child's body on Elisha's bed and went to find him. Gehazi came over to push her away, but the man of God said, 'Leave her alone!
She is in bitter distress, but the Lord has hidden it from me and has not told me why. Biblical scholar Burke Long says the "great woman" of Shunnem who appears in the Book of Kings acknowledges and respects the prophet Elisha's position yet is also a "determined mover and shaper of events. The Shunammite's story takes place among the rural poor, and against this "backdrop of extreme poverty, the Shunammite is wealthy, giving her more boldness than poor women or sometimes even poor men.
He gave it to Shaphan , the king's scribe, who read it, then gave it to King Josiah. The king tore his robes in distress and said "Go and inquire of the Lord for me The text does not comment on the fact this prophet was a woman, but says only that they took her answer back to the king verse 20 thereby demonstrating there was nothing unusual in a female prophet.
Abigail was the wife of Nabal , who refused to assist the future king David after having accepted his help. Abigail, realizing David's anger will be dangerous to the entire household, acts immediately. She intercepts David bearing gifts and, with what Frymer-Kensky describes as Abigail's "brilliant rhetoric", convinces David not to kill anyone. When Nabal later dies, David weds her.
Frymer-Kensky says "Once again an intelligent determined woman is influential far beyond the confines of patriarchy" showing biblical women had what anthropology terms informal power. Ruth is the title character of the Book of Ruth. In the narrative, she is not an Israelite but rather is from Moab ; she marries an Israelite.
Both her husband and her father-in-law die, and she helps her mother-in-law, Naomi , find protection. The two of them travel to Bethlehem together, where Ruth wins the love of Boaz through her kindness. She is one of five women mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus found in the Gospel of Matthew , alongside Tamar , Rahab , the "wife of Uriah " Bathsheba , and Mary.
In the narrative, Ahasuerus seeks a new wife after his queen, Vashti , refuses to obey him, and Esther is chosen for her beauty. The king's chief advisor, Haman , is offended by Esther's cousin and guardian, Mordecai , and gets permission from the king to have all the Jews in the kingdom killed.
Esther foils the plan, and wins permission from the king for the Jews to kill their enemies, and they do so. Her story is the traditional basis for the Jewish holiday Purim , which is celebrated on the date given in the story for when Haman's order was to go into effect, which is the same day that Jews kill their enemies after the plan is reversed.
The New Testament is the second part of the Christian Bible. It tells about the teachings and person of Jesus , as well as events in first-century Christianity. It consists of four narratives called gospels about the life, teaching, death and resurrection of Jesus. It includes a record of the Apostolic ministries in the early church, called the Acts of the Apostles ; twenty-one letters called "epistles" written by various authors to specific groups with specific needs concerning Christian doctrine, counsel, instruction, and conflict resolution; and one Apocalyptic book, the Book of Revelation , which is a book of prophecy, containing some instructions to seven local congregations of Asia Minor, but mostly containing prophetical symbology about the end times.
The New Testament names many women among the followers of Jesus and in positions of leadership in the early church. In fact there are more women named as leaders in the New Testament than men. Phoebe is a 'deacon' and a 'benefactor' Romans Euodia and Syntyche are among 'the overseers and deacons' at Philippi Philippians 1: The only role lacking specific female names is that of 'elder'--but there male names are lacking as well.
New Testament scholar Craig Blomberg and other complementarians assert there are three primary texts that are critical to the traditional view of women and women's roles: Jesus often spoke directly to women in public. The disciples were astonished to see Jesus talking with the Samaritan woman at the well of Sychar John 4: He spoke freely with the woman taken in adultery John 8: Similarly, Jesus addressed a woman bent over for eighteen years Luke Jesus spoke in a thoughtful, caring manner.
Theologian Donald G. Jesus held women personally responsible for their own behavior as seen in his dealings with the woman at the well John 4: Jesus dealt with each as having the personal freedom and enough self-determination to deal with their own repentance and forgiveness.
There are several Gospel accounts of Jesus imparting important teachings to and about women: New Testament scholar Ben Witherington III says "Jesus broke with both biblical and rabbinic traditions that restricted women's roles in religious practices, and he rejected attempts to devalue the worth of a woman, or her word of witness.
Sociologist Linda L. Lindsey says "Belief in the spiritual equality of the genders Galatians 3: MacDonald uses a "social scientific concept of power" which distinguishes between power and authority to show early Christian women, while lacking overt authority, still retained sufficient indirect power and influence to play a significant role in Christianity's beginnings.
Some New Testament texts 1 Peter 2: Christians were accused of incest because they spoke of each other as brother and sister and of loving one another, and they were accused of cannibalism because of the Lord's supper as well as being accused of undermining family and society. Such negative public opinion played a part in the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.
Outside of the infancy narratives , Mary is mentioned infrequently after the beginning of Jesus' public ministry. The Gospels say Mary is the one "of whom Jesus was born" Matthew 1: Some scholars believe the infancy narratives were interpolations by the early church. Bart Ehrman explains that Jesus is never mentioned by name in the Talmud , but there is a subtle attack on the virgin birth that refers to the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier named "Panthera.
Mary is not introduced in the Gospels in a way that would make her seem noteworthy or deserving of special honor. She is young, resides in an insignificant town, far from the centers of power, with no special social position or status, yet she is the one granted the highest of all statuses, demonstrating the supreme reversal.
Mary herself states all future generations will call her blessed 1: Mary "ponders" Simeon 's warning that "a sword would pierce her soul" in Luke 2: She is troubled by Jesus staying behind in the Temple at Jerusalem at 12 and his assumption his parents would know where he was Luke 2: Mary "ponders all these things in her heart.
The Matthew version has it as "Then one said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to speak with thee. But he answered and said unto him that told him, Who is my mother? And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren!
For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother. The Gospel of John never identifies her by name, referring instead to "the mother of Jesus. The first is the wedding feast at Cana where the wine runs out. Mary tells Jesus, and his response is "Woman, what have I to do with you? My hour has not yet come.
Jesus' mother appears again in John Paul wrote in Romans They are outstanding among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was. Whether this name is masculine or feminine depends on how the word was accented in Greek. Examination of ancient Greek and Latin literature confirms the masculine name Junias is nowhere attested, whereas the female name Junia Keener says the early church understood Andronicus and Junia to be a husband and wife apostolic team.
In Romans Paul worked and seemingly lived with them for a considerable time, and they followed him to Ephesus before he left on his next missionary journey. In Acts When Priscilla and Aquilla heard him, they took him with them and "explained the way of God more accurately. In Luke Luke qualifies her as "one who was healed" but otherwise little is known about her.
There is nothing to directly indicate Mary Magdalene was a former prostitute, and some scholars believe she was a woman of means who helped support Jesus and his ministry. In John Mary Magdalene is inconsolable, but she turns and Jesus' speaks to her. He calls her by name and she recognizes him. There is little doubt the Fourth evangelist wishes to portray Mary Magdalene as important, perhaps equally important for Jesus' fledgling community as Mother Mary herself.
The Roman writer Celsus ' On The True Doctrine , circa , is the earliest known comprehensive criticism of Christianity and survives exclusively in quotations from it in Contra Celsum , a refutation written in by Origen of Alexandria. Margaret MacDonald says Celsus' study of Christian scripture led him to focus on Mary Magdalene as the witness to the resurrection, as someone deluded by the "sorcery" by which Jesus did miracles, and as someone who then becomes one of Jesus' primary "instigators" and "perpetrators".
MacDonald explains that, "In Celsus' work, Mary Magdalene's role in the resurrection story denigrates its credibility From beginning to end, [Celsus says] the story of Jesus' life has been shaped by the 'fanciful imaginings' of women" thus lending enemy attestation to the importance of women in the early church and of Mary Magdalene herself. MacDonald sees this negative view of Mary as reflecting a challenge taking place within the church of the second century.
This was a challenge to Mary's role as a woman disciple and to leadership roles for women in general. Herodias wanted John dead, because he had called her second marriage unlawful, but her husband king Herod prevented this. On Herod's birthday, Herodias' daughter danced for him, and he was so pleased that he took an oath, in front of witnesses, that he would give her what she wanted.
Her mother instructed her to ask for the head of John the Baptist on a plate, and Herod sadly agreed. The imprisoned John was beheaded, the head given to the daughter, and she gave it to her mother. Herodias daughter is unnamed in the gospels, but has outside the Bible been referred to as Salome. Ananias and his wife Sapphira were, according to the Acts of the Apostles chapter 5 , members of the early Christian church in Jerusalem.
The account records their sudden deaths after lying about money. Acts chapter 4: As told at the beginning of Acts chapter 5 Ananias and Sapphira sold their land but secretly withheld a portion of the proceeds. Ananias presented his donation to Peter. Peter replied, "Why is it that Satan has so filled your heart that you have lied to the Holy Spirit?
Peter stated that Ananias had lied not to men, but to God. Ananias died on the spot and was carried out. Three hours after Ananias' death his wife arrived, unaware of what had happened. Peter asked her the price of the land that she and Ananias had sold, and Sapphira stated the same untruthful price that Ananias had given.
She also fell dead. Theologian James Dunn describes this story as "one of the most unnerving episodes in the whole of the New Testament. Paul the Apostle was the first writer to give ecclesiastical directives about the role of women in the church. Some of these are now heavily disputed. There are also arguments that some of the writings attributed to Paul are pseudepigraphal post-Pauline interpolations.
These verses read in the Authorized Version "Let your women keep silence in the churches: And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: These verses in the King James version read as follows "Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.
For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety. But if any widow have children or nephews, let them learn first to shew piety at home, and to requite their parents: Now she that is a widow indeed, and desolate, trusteth in God, and continueth in supplications and prayers night and day.
But she that liveth in pleasure is dead while she liveth. And these things give in charge, that they may be blameless. But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel. But the younger widows refuse: And withal they learn to be idle, wandering about from house to house; and not only idle, but tattlers also and busybodies, speaking things which they ought not.
I will therefore that the younger women marry, bear children, guide the house, give none occasion to the adversary to speak reproachfully. For some are already turned aside after Satan. If any man or woman that believeth have widows, let them relieve them, and let not the church be charged; that it may relieve them that are widows indeed.
In the King James translation these verses read as " Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you. But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God. Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head.
But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: For the man is not of the woman: Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man.
For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels. Nevertheless neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man, in the Lord. For as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman; but all things of God.
Judge in yourselves: Doth not even nature itself teach you, that, if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him? But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, neither the churches of God. In 1 Peter 3 wives are exhorted to submit to their husbands "so they may be won over.
There is no contemporary consensus on the New Testament view of women. Psychologist James R. Beck points out that " Evangelical Christians have not yet settled the exegetical and theological issues. Twenty six women purchased two Bibles and went through them, cutting out every text that concerned women, pasted them into a book, and wrote commentaries underneath.
Its purpose was to challenge Liberal theology of the time that supported the orthodox position that woman should be subservient to man. The book attracted a great deal of controversy and antagonism. Contemporary Christianity is still divided between those who support equality of all types for women in the church, those who support spiritual equality with the compartmentalization of roles, and those who support a more modern equivalent of patriarchy.
There are hundreds of examples of women from the Bible as characters in painting, sculpture, opera and film. Historically, artistic renderings tend to reflect the changing views on women from within society more than the biblical account that mentions them. Eve is a common subject. Art historian Mati Meyer says society's views of women are observable in the differing renderings of Eve in art over the centuries.
Meyer explains: Thereafter a secular view of Eve emerges "through her transformation into a femme fatale —a compound of beauty, seductiveness and independence set to destroy the man. Courageous and victorious women, such as Jael, Esther and the deuterocanonical Judith , were popular "moral" figures in the Middle Ages. The Renaissance , which preferred the sensuous female nude up through the eighteenth century, and the "femme fatale", such as Delilah, from the nineteenth century onward, all demonstrate how the Bible and art both shape and reflect views of women.
The story of the biblical Queen Athaliah was the inspiration for one of the greatest tragedies of French dramatist Jean Racine , Athalie. The opera Salome by Richard Strauss was highly controversial when first composed due to its combination of biblical theme, eroticism and murder. Ruth is an opera with libretto in English composed by Lennox Berkeley that premiered in London in George Frideric Handel composed a series of dramatic oratorios in English on Biblical themes.
Among those with major roles for notable women from the Bible are Esther ,  composed for private performance in a nobleman's home in , revised into a full oratorio in , Deborah , first performed at the King's Theatre in London on 17 March ,  Athalia , first performed on 10 July at the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford ,  Samson ,  premiere performance at Covent Garden theatre in London on 18 February , and Jephtha ,  premiered at Covent Garden on 26 February Classics scholar Kyle Harper references the historian Peter Brown as showing sexuality especially female sexuality was at the heart of the early clash over Christianity's place in the world.
Views on sexuality in the early church were diverse and fiercely debated within its various communities; these doctrinal debates took place within the boundaries of the ideas in Paul's letters and in the context of an often persecuted minority seeking to define itself from the world around it. In his letters, Paul often attempted to find a middle way among these disputes, which included people who saw the gospel as liberating them from all moral boundaries, and those who took very strict moral stances.
These conflicts are thought by many scholars to have impacted Bible content in the later Pauline Epistles. The sexual-ethical structures of Roman society were built on status, and sexual modesty and shame meant something different for men than it did for women, and for the well-born than it did for the poor, and for the free citizen than it did for the slave.
Harper says: In Paul's letters, porneia , a single name for an array of sexual behaviors outside marital intercourse , became a central defining concept of sexual morality, and shunning it, a key sign of choosing to follow Jesus. Sexual morality could be shown by forgoing sex altogether and practicing chastity, remaining virgin, or having sex only within a marriage.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: List of women in the Bible. Canons and books. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Christian biblical canons. Deuterocanon Antilegomena. Authorship and development. Authorship Dating Hebrew canon. Pauline epistles Petrine epistles.
Translations and manuscripts. Biblical studies. Hermeneutics Pesher Midrash Pardes. Allegorical interpretation Literalism. Gnostic Islamic Qur'anic. Inerrancy Infallibility. Four major positions. Christian egalitarianism Christian feminism Complementarianism Biblical patriarchy. Church and society. Christianity and homosexuality Women in Church history. Feminist Evangelical and Ecumenical Women's Caucus.
Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood. Theologians and authors. Frederica Mathewes-Green. Women in Judaism. Main articles: Hagar and Sarah. Main article: Lot's daughters. Concubine of a Levite.
Deborah declares his refusal means the glory of the victory will belong to a woman. She is in bitter distress, but the Lord has hidden it from me and has not told me why. Oxford University Press, In Cyrus Adler; et al.