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Our analytical solution is validated through finite element simulations via user-defined elements in Abaqus. United States ; Narasimhan Rajaram, Univ. Retrieved 21 February For model identification and validation, specimens with and without imprinted electrodes are tested. La fase finale del Neolitico a.

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Ithapu, Risi Kondor, Sterling C. Bappy, Amit K. Guibas, Alexei A. Shah, Ioannis A. Kakadiaris DUST: Shen, Bertram E. Morariu, Larry S. Yu ER3: Choy, Philip H. Xing ShapeOdds: Kutulakos, Srinivasa G. Narasimhan, Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan Oral B Unrolling the Shutter: Schechner, Kiriakos N.

How, John W. Seitz ScanNet: Kulkarni, Joshua B. Torr, M. Pawan Kumar Variational Autoencoded Regression: Summers Attentional Push: Gatys, Alexander S. Venkatesh Babu Network Sketching: Esmaeili, Bharat Singh, Larry S. Black, Peter V. Crandall, Michael S.

Narasimhan, Artur W. Torr Filter Flow Made Practical: Jacobs, Michael J. Black iCaRL: Vemuri, Sterling C. Schechner, Anthony B. Nguyen, Michael S.

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Zemel, Eric P. Efros Deep Roots: Davis Lean Crowdsourcing: Lowe OctNet: Neves Look Into Person: Jawahar Not Afraid of the Dark: Yu, Ann B.

Worrall, Stephan J. Garbin, Daniyar Turmukhambetov, Gabriel J. Brostow Multimodal Transfer: Snoek, Arnold W. Saturday, July 22, Kamehameha III. Spotlight A. Borrowing Treasures From the Wealthy: The More You Know: Using Knowledge Graphs for Image Classification. Spyridon Thermos, Georgios Th. Papadopoulos, Petros Daras, Gerasimos Potamianos.

Charles R. A Color and Thermal Stereo Benchmark. Distinguishing the Indistinguishable: Exploring Structural Ambiguities via Geodesic Context. Dim P. Uijlings, Frank Keller, Vittorio Ferrari. Chang, Manolis Savva, Thomas Funkhouser. Efros, Jitendra Malik. Spotlight C. Instance-Level Salient Object Segmentation. Radiometric Calibration for Internet Photo Collections.

Mengye Ren, Richard S. Poster Chi Li, M. Hager, Manmohan Chandraker. Amodal Detection of 3D Objects: Transition Forests: Scene Flow to Action Map: Lee Giles. Brown, Pheng-Ann Heng. Yichao Zhang, Silvia L. Binary Constraint Preserving Graph Matching. From Local to Global: Split-Brain Autoencoders: Unsupervised Learning by Cross-Channel Prediction. Vamsi K. Johnson, Vikas Singh.

Scott Phoenix, Dileep George. A Compact DNN: Jawadul H. Hamprecht, Melih Kandemir. Tax, Louis-Philippe Morency. Sujoy Paul, Jawadul H. Colorization as a Proxy Task for Visual Understanding. Lookup-Based Convolutional Neural Network. Spindle Net: Efficient Diffusion on Region Manifolds: Feature Pyramid Networks for Object Detection. Mind the Class Weight Bias: Colin Lea, Michael D.

De-An Huang, Joseph J. Bryan A. Plummer, Matthew Brown, Svetlana Lazebnik. Moura, Devi Parikh, Dhruv Batra. Automatic Understanding of Image and Video Advertisements. Semantic Compositional Networks for Visual Captioning. From Red Wine to Red Tomato: Composition With Context.

Steven J. Spotlight B. Crossing Nets: Localization-Classification-Regression for Human Pose. Seeing What Is Not There: Derpanis, Kostas Daniilidis. Articulated Multi-Person Tracking in the Wild. Beyond Triplet Loss: Agent-Centric Risk Assessment: Accident Anticipation and Risky Region Localization. Learning Videography for Click Free Viewing.

Context-Aware Correlation Filter Tracking. Deep Pilot: Slow Flow: Black, Andreas Geiger. Florian Bernard, Frank R. Schmidt, Johan Thunberg, Daniel Cremers. Pengfei Dou, Shishir K. Dynamic Facial Analysis: Munawar Hayat, Salman H. Khan, Naoufel Werghi, Roland Goecke.

Generalized Rank Pooling for Activity Recognition. Hasan F. Zaki, Faisal Shafait, Ajmal Mian. FlowNet 2. Simple Does It: Weakly Supervised Instance and Semantic Segmentation. Possible morphologies include high-stroke, high-force, multiactuator lattices, 3D-printed and paper actuators, self-twisting spirals, and tensile elements inspired by spider silk.

More complex electro-origami devices include solenoids, adaptive grippers, robotic cilia, locomoting robots, self-packing deployable structures, origami artificial muscles, and dynamic origami art. Tuesday 5 March Show All Abstracts. Tuesday Plenary Session. Tuesday 5 March 8: Silverton Salons Session Chairs: Roger M.

Groves, Technische Univ. Delft Netherlands Faramarz Gordaninejad, Univ. Piezoelectric thin films are of increasing interest in low voltage microelectromechanical systems MEMS for sensing, actuation, and energy harvesting. The key figures of merit for actuators and energy harvesting will be discussed, with emphasis on how to achieve these on practical substrates.

For example, control of the domain structure of the ferroelectric material allows the energy harvesting figure of merit for the piezoelectric layer to be increased by factors of 4 — To illustrate the functionality of these films, examples of integration into MEMS structures will also be discussed, including adjustable optics for x-ray telescopes, low frequency, and non-resonant piezoelectric energy harvesting devices, and miniaturized ultrasound transducer arrays.

Structural health monitoring: Nowadays there is pressure for commercialization of research from founding agencies, but the process of commercialization of research needs time and support to be successful because there are several stages and limits which should be crossed to achieve a market product.

Some of them are related to technical issues but some are related to business problems. One possible path of commercialization is creating new start-up companies. During this presentation, problems of research commercialization will be listed and discussed. Some case studies related to SHM technology will be presented.

Particularly, the talk will focus on active thermography and applications, predictive maintenance based on AI algorithms and its application, on sensors design and application, and some UAV-based solutions. Session 3: Tuesday 5 March Gursel Alici , Univ. Design of reliable silicone elastomers for dielectric elastomers and stretchable electronics Invited Paper Paper Time: This combined with their reliability over millions of deformation cycles makes silicone elastomers ideal candidates for dielectric elastomers.

Furthermore, its curing is robust and not as sensitive to poisoning as other silicone elastomer formulations. This presentation aims to equip the audience with knowledge on how to prepare silicone elastomers with specific properties related to general uses, and in particular for dielectric elastomers, without compromising the mechanical integrity of the elastomer and thereby avoiding mechanical failure.

Focus is in particular put on formulation and processing to obtain soft, reliable, and reproducible elastomers. A novel design concept to boost the force output of dielectric elastomer membrane actuators Paper Time: Stack dielectric elastomer actuators DEAs are typically used to achieve high forces. In contrast, membrane actuators have the advantage of lower manufacturing effort, but suffer from low force output.

This paper presents a novel design which permits to increase the force output of membrane DEAs. The system is based on a membrane DEA biased with linear and non-linear springs. By means of the novel design concept, it is shown how the force output of a single DE membrane can be increased by a factor of 3 to 4.

The novel design is initially illustrated, and subsequently validated via experimental measurements. Show Abstract. One of the goals of soft robotics is to create soft actuators that rival the characteristics and utility of natural muscle. Unfortunately, dielectric elastomer actuators DEAs provide in-plane expansion when actuated, as opposed to natural muscle, which creates contraction upon stimulation.

Because the overall configuration of the DEA is unchanged, these tensile actuators present an easily implementable option for creating tension in larger soft robotic systems. Contactless coupling of dielectric elastomer membranes with magnetic repulsion Paper Time: Chongjing Cao, Xing Gao, Univ. United Kingdom ; Andrew T. We present experimental analysis of the compliant coupling in the magnetically-coupled dielectric elastomer actuator MCDEA , which exploits contactless magnetic repulsion for a frictionless coupling between DE membranes.

We investigate the phase space of the compliant coupling and its relationship with the stroke amplitude. Session 4: Twisted and Coiled Polymer Actuators. Tuesday 5 March 1: Helmut F. Schlaak , Technische Univ. Darmstadt Germany ;. Nancy L. United States. Soft manipulators with programmable motion using twisted-and-coiled actuators Paper Time: A robot capable of shape morphing, to change its configuration without modifying design, can adapt to environments better than a robot with a fixed configuration.

We propose a three-dimensional shape-morphing link that can achieve precisely controlled complex three-dimensional shapes by embedding a variable-stiffness element and multiple twisted-and-coiled actuators TCA into a soft elastomer. A spatial mechanism consists of one or more these links can morph to a variety of configurations.

We envision that the proposed morphing link will have a wide range of applications in robotics locomotion mechanisms such as flying wings, walking legs, and swimming fins. Investigation of manufacturing parameters for copper-wound super-coiled polymer actuators Paper Time: Monofilament Super-Coiled Polymer artificial muscles SCPs can be manufactured by twisting nylon filaments until a tight helical coil is formed.

A recent advancement involves manufacturing copper-wound SCPs, which can be actuated using electric Joule heating. This paper describes the implementation of an apparatus to manufacture copper-wound SCPs. This apparatus also allows for variation and control of several manufacturing parameters of the SCPs. Using this apparatus, SCP specimens were manufactured with various combinations of these parameter values.

The performance of these specimens was then experimentally characterized in order to optimize the strain, contraction time, and specific work of the SCPs. A modular twisted and coiled polymer actuator unit for robotic tentacles Paper Time: This paper describes the design and manufacturing of a modular actuator unit based on twisted and coiled polymer actuator.

Twisted and coiled polymer actuators have attracted attention in the field of smart actuators and robotics. The proposed concept allows for the improvement of the response time of the twisted and coiled polymer actuator by incorporating active cooling method. This realization results in the development of modular actuator unit for bio-robotic system. The modular actuator unit consist of several twisted and coiled polymer actuators, a 3D printed frame and DC fans.

The design and manufacturing of such modular actuator unit will be discussed in detail. Preliminary results about the performance of the twisted and coiled polymer actuators will also be presented. Double helix artificial muscles Paper Time: Spinks, David Shepherd, Univ. High performance artificial muscles based on twisted and coiled polymer fibers have attracted considerable attention since their discovery in These artificial muscles generate tensile strokes as a result of a torsional actuation occurring within the twisted fiber.

The torsion is due to a volume expansion and is related to the helical topology of the twisted polymer fiber or fiber composite. The volume expansion can be induced thermally, electrochemically, photonically or by absorption of small molecules, such as water. This paper presents a new type of tensile artificial muscle that exploits the properties of the double helix.

Two fibers are plied to form the double helix structure and diameter expansion of the fibers generates a large lengthwise contraction in the plied structure. The process is successfully modelled using the single helix approach. Experimental investigation of temperature-dependent hysteresis of fishing-line artificial muscle twisted and coiled polymer fiber actuator Paper Time: Japan ; Toshihira Irisawa, Nagoya Univ.

A fishing-line artificial muscle actuator is typically tested under a constant weight load. This paper reports a new hysteresis phenomenon discovered by changing both load weight and temperature applied to a fishing-line artificial muscle actuator. Obviously the equilibrium position of an actuator changes by load weight.

Interestingly, the equilibrium position also largely changes when the actuator is firstly heated and cooled just after exchanging the load weight. In this paper we call this phenomenon as temperature-dependent hysteresis. We have observed that the magnitude of the temperature-dependent hysteresis in the experiment reached the same level as the thermal contraction and was not negligible.

Session 5: Tuesday 5 March 3: Anne Ladegaard Skov, Technical Univ. Numerical studies on origami dielectric elastomer actuator using Kresling pattern Paper Time: Folding sheet materials into cylindrical structures using an origami-based approach allows the sheet materials to be densely packed within a confined space that can be deployed when needed.

Kresling pattern, which is a cylindrical origami pattern consisting of identical triangular panels with cyclic symmetry, functions under the spontaneous buckling of a thin cylindrical shell under torsional loading. The incorporation of smart materials, such as electroactive polymers, in origami structures can allow them to actively fold using electrical stimuli.

In this study, finite element analysis FEA is performed in a single cell of Kresling pattern as well as the continuous Kresling pattern-based origami structure. Furthermore, different placements of dielectric elastomer actuators DEAs implemented within the origami structure are studied to identify the performance. The objective of this study is to validate the effectiveness of DEAs as a method to actively fold the origami structure, to deform and return to its initial state, and to investigate the geometric parameters on the folding structure incorporated with DEAs.

Equivalent mechanical pressure and stress are used as loads in the FEA to simulate the electric actuation performed by the DEAs. By thorough FEA investigation, the impact of geometric parameters, material properties, and placement of DEAs on the origami structure for optimal performance is studied to avoid trial and error iterations for experimental studies. Finite element simulation of plane strain dielectric elastomer membranes actuated by discretized electrodes Paper Time: Philipp Loew, Gianluca Rizzello, Univ.

Dielectric elastomers represent an attractive technology for smart actuator, sensor, and generator systems. In order to estimate how the performance of a membrane dielectric elastomer actuator DEA changes with the available design parameters e. Alternatively, accurate simulations tools capable of predicting the system performance can be used to effectively optimize the design of DEA applications.

In particular, Finite Element FE simulations allow to map global quantities as well as locally distributed quantities such as stress and strain fields as well as the electric field, and therefore appear as suitable for applications in which complex membrane geometries or electrode patterns are used.

In this work, an FE model based on Comsol Multiphysics is introduced. This model is based on an electro-mechanically coupled formulation for large deformations, which also includes viscoelastic effects and electrodes geometry, while neglecting inertial effects. Due to the poor aspect ratio of membrane structures discretized with three-dimensional continuum elements, computation times appear as excessively large.

To overcome this issue, the geometry is reduced to a two-dimensional structure. In order to simulate the local electric field distribution, both electrodes are discretized separately. For model identification and validation, specimens with and without imprinted electrodes are tested. Based on the developed model, the influence of the discretized electrodes is then examined, by varying electrode dimensions.

Furthermore, fringe fields at the electrode edges are investigated in order to better understand local phenomena, e. Effects of variation of permittivity and the actuating voltage on the dynamic response of dielectric elastomer actuator Paper Time: Zezhou Li, Henry Y. Lau, Xiaoyu Chen, The Univ. Dielectric elastomer DE has been studied a lot recently.

However, less attention is paid to dynamic modeling and control. In this paper, factors affecting the dynamic response are studied. Firstly we revise the fundamental constitutive model, based on Gent energy function, by treating the permittivity as a stretch-dependent variable. Mechanical coupling and the time-dependent behavior are well described with the improved model.

The influence of the loading pattern is also studied. It shows the effects of loading pattern on the dynamic performance and inspires us to make an improvement that the voltage parameters should also be included in the model. Continuum electro-mechanical damage modelling for dielectric elastomer Paper Time: Dielectric Elastomer Transducers DETs represent an emerging technology with great potential for mechatronic applications.

These devices shows many advantages, but their practical applicability is strongly affected by reliability and lifetime, which depend on both environmental conditions and electro-mechanical loads. At present, characterization of DETs lifetime has been conducted by means of stochastic models only.

This paper presents a novel modeling approach for electro-mechanical damage evolution of DETs based on a free-energy framework. Kinetic law for combined electro-mechanical damage evolution are introduced, and used to simulate the life status of DETs reliability based on experimental observations.

A dynamic model of helical dielectric elastomer actuator Paper Time: Advances in soft robotic systems enable to create devices that can elegantly deal with complex environments and gently interface with humans. However, much progress in actuator technologies is required for adoption in practical and commercial scale-up implementations.

An helical dielectric elastomer actuator HDEA can be a promising solution that fits in these applications. Nevertheless, in order to move forward from theory to practice, many aspects still need to be developed and advanced. For instance, current works may be insufficient to advance the topics in control systems applied to actuator geometry, in relation to relevant segments such as material synthesis and design for manufacturing.

It is apparent that absence of a more complete and generalized dynamics model of an HDEA limits rapid engineering progress in this field. In some previous research, important contributions of electromechanical model were proposed for linear and non-linear hyperelastic materials. However, other effects such as viscoelasticity and hysteresis in the strain-voltage relation were often neglected.

This paper presents the dynamical model derivation of an HDEA using lumped parameters to model the electrical and mechanical behavior of the actuator. Furthermore, it covers the most imperative effects embedded in the dynamics of the actuator. In this work, the dielectric elastomeric transducer is modeled with VHB acrylic due to its well-documented material parameters needed in the non-linear strain energy functions.

Electromechanical hysteresis model and identification for soft dielectric elastomer actuator Paper Time: Dielectric elastomer actuator DEAs have significant potential for biomimetic area. The DEA has viscoelastic nonlinearities such as hysteresis which will reduce control accuracy in the control system and limit the broader range of applications in the high accuracy field.

However, most of modeling the DEA based on viscoelastic are with high order and not suitable for control strategy. In this paper, the hysteresis model is using Controlled Auto-Regressive Model CAR to characterize the hysteresis phenomenon between the output displacement and input actuation voltage.

Moreover, a validation experiment is set to validate the model. We also find that the hysteresis is varied with changing the frequence and amplitude of input voltage. A finite element model for investigating the thermo-electro-mechanical response of dielectric elastomer actuators Canceled Paper Time: Dielectric elastomers DEs belong to a new class of smart materials capable of achieving large actuation strain under the application of high electric field.

The material behaviour of such elastomers is significantly affected by the temperature change. This paper presents a numerical study of the effect of temperature on the electromechanical performance of dielectric elastomer actuators DEAs. A finite deformation 3D finite element framework is developed that includes the effects of temperature based on the theory of coupled nonlinear thermo-electro-elasticity for electroactive polymers.

Details of the governing differential equations, the associated weak formulation and the constitutive relations are presented together with an iterative Newton-Raphson scheme used for solving the system of coupled nonlinear equations. Material behaviour of the actuator is modeled using the neo-Hookean model of hyperelasticity. Standard eight node linear hexahedron element with five degrees of freedom at each node three mechanical displacements, one electric potential, and one temperature is used.

A selective reduced integration scheme is employed for alleviating the effect of volumetric locking arising due to the isochoric deformation constraint. An in-house computation code is developed to implement the coupled finite element framework. Firstly, we apply the developed FE code to examine the effect of temperature on the electromechanical actuation behaviour and the instability parameters of a homogeneously deforming dielectric elastomer actuator.

Then, we investigate the effect of temperature on the electromechanical responses of complex bi-layered bending actuator involving inhomogeneous deformation. Green solvents used in piezo sensors production Paper Time: Alessio Marrani, Solvay Solexis S. For this reason Solvay developed novel formulation by using Green solvents instead of standard flammable or toxic ones.

Furthermore, on the basis of this experience Solvay developed New crosslinkable polymers with high dielectric constant showing interesting performance in various applications, such as gate dielectric in OTFT. Session PTue: Poster Session. Tuesday 5 March 6: Attendees are required to wear their conference registration badge. Authors of poster papers will be present to answer questions concerning their papers.

Poster authors must set up their poster between 10 am and 4 pm on Tuesday 5 March. View poster presentation guidelines. Solasa, Kwang Jin Kim, Univ. Robots provide a great deal of assistance in a number of areas, particularly in disaster relief efforts. These machines allow for exploration further than the human body can take us.

Work on the soft-robotic snake platform will further aid these efforts. Considering the compact size and the locomotion of a snake, the platform will be able to maneuver into small areas with relative ease. The operation of the snake is driven by an EAP actuators connected to a series of pin-connected rigid links that serve as the body of the platform.

This approach will allow for rectilinear inching and undulating slithering locomotion, thus increasing the mobility of the platform in the field. Overall, the soft- robotic snake platform is designed to further aid disaster relief efforts by utilizing a light weight mobile unit. A feasibility study in the use of ionic polymer-metal composites in rectangular cantilever form as flow sensor devices Paper Time: Ionic polymer-metal composites IPMCs have been studied extensively in the field of actuation and sensing and have shown to have very promising sensing applications.

In this study, we have developed a rectangular IPMC sensor to explore a range of measurable flow rates and the feasibility of using IPMCs as underwater sensors in a cantilever form. The acquired voltage response was then used to approximate the flow speed directly. These results suggest that IPMCs are a feasible candidate for underwater sensing applications. Improved lifetime of dielectric elastomer actuators in cell culture conditions Paper Time: Alexandre Poulin, Herbert R.

Based on this observation, we modified the geometry of an expanding circle DEA to decrease the electric field seen by the immersion liquid, and show this geometry can generate a static radial stretch of 1. Drop-on-demand lift-off patterning of compliant electrodes Paper Time: Anderson, Samuel Rosset, The Univ. We present a method for the patterning of compliant electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators using drop-on-demand DoD printing.

The method consists in using DoD to print a mask in a ethanol-soluble sacrificial layer. Any electrode formulation can then be applied on top of the mask, using different techniques. The mask is subsequently dissolved to remove the excess of electrode and reveal the pattern, similar to a lift-off process. This approach has the advantages of DoD high resolution, versatility of printing from bitmap files , without the tedious development of an electrode ink fulfilling the printer's requirement.

Abatement of high-voltage leakage current in electrostrictive fluorinated polymers through electro-annealing Paper Time: This paper will demonstrate that an alternative approach is possible. Live-mirror shape correction technology operated through modified electroactive polymer actuators Paper Time: Le, Univ. The actuator stack was integrated to the mirror in order to prove the concept of adaptive mirror which is able to reach to goal of many microns mirror deformation.

Plane-strain deformations of ionic polymer-metal composites Paper Time: The technology of ionic polymer-metal composites IPMCs has steadily seen remarkable advancements, but their underlying physics is still elusive. The hypothesis of rigid cross-section is often put forward in IPMC modeling, within structural beam- or plate-like theories.

We assess the validity of this hypothesis through the two-dimensional study of multiaxial deformation, based on a thermodynamically-consistent model of IPMC actuation. Our analytical solution is validated through finite element simulations via user-defined elements in Abaqus. Our work demonstrates a rich and complex strain deformation pattern along with a counterintuitive dependence on the Poisson's ratio.

Force optimization and numerical validation of helical dielectric elastomer actuator Paper Time: Dielectric elastomer actuator DEA is one of the most promising group of electroactive polymers EAP that can find its applications in scientific, medical, industrial and other fields. By geometrically modifying DEA structure, helical dielectric elastomer actuator HDEA possesses several advantages due to the continuities of its electrodes and elastomers.

The actuator is well known for its competitive electro-mechanical properties and capability to deform significantly in the first place. However, some applications of EAP require relatively high actuation force along with moderate to high deformation capability for a minimum voltage applied. For this purpose, an optimization on the actuator is carried out to maximize the actuation force while keeping the deformation capability on an appropriate level for particular application.

Numerical simulation on a single HDEA actuator is performed to validate the analytical model used in the optimization and to evaluate the performance of the actuator. In both analytical and numerical analyses, elastomer and electrodes of HDEA are modeled using a hyperelastic model with the materials suitable for 3D printing manufacturing technology.

The results of the simulation and analytical solutions are compared and discussed. In addition, an adaptive soft active composite SAC trailing edge of a wing is chosen as a target application used in the optimization procedure. Thus, the actuator parameters are optimized not only for a single actuator, but also for the adaptive SAC trailing edge with its own dimensional constraints, certain force, deformation, and voltage requirements.

Comprehensive figures of merit for dielectric elastomer actuators Canceled Paper Time: In this study, inclusion of additional parameters to the current formula, such as electromechanical coupling, heat dissipation, viscoelasticity, are considered and arranged to formulate a new comprehensive FOM. Furthermore, in order to maximize the material selection effectiveness, an application-oriented weighting methodology is presented.

Due to the highly interrelated mechanical and electrical dynamics of DEAs, different weighting coefficients and formulas are introduced with the purpose of exploiting the intrinsic characteristics of the FOM in various applications. The evolution of the dielectric constant in various polymers subjected to uniaxial and biaxial stretches Paper Time: Electroactive polymers DEs can undergo large deformations in response to electrical stimulation.

However, their development is hindered by a few obstacles. In particular, for a meaningful actuation high electric field is required. This is the result of the relatively low ratio between the dielectric and the elastic moduli in DEs. In order to reach their potential, deeper understanding of their coupled electromechanical behavior is required.

This, in turn, may lead to a better design of DEs that are capable of efficient operation. This work is aimed toward examining the coupled response of different DEs. We present a new experimental system which allows us to evaluate the influence of uniaxial and biaxial deformations on their dielectric constant. Finally, these findings will be compared to statistical-mechanics based model which takes the micro-structure of the DEs into account.

Wednesday 6 March Show All Abstracts. Wednesday Plenary Session. Wednesday 6 March 8: In Memory of H. Don Wolpert. Journey from energy harvesting and 4D printing to medical applications Plenary Presentation Paper Time: By utilizing adaptive features, smart materials can be built as sensors and actuators. Energy can be harvested from vibration and human motion. Piezoelectric and electromagnetic power generators were used to transform the mechanical energy from vibration and human motion into electrical energy.

On the other hand, robotic exoskeletons that can assist people with impaired mobility have been developed. With the developed device, paralyzed individual can regain the ability to stand up and walk. Smart ankle-foot prostheses with compact cam-spring mechanism have also been implemented to help amputees walk with less effort while having more natural gait.

Utilizing additive manufacturing into smart materials has led to 4D printing technology for creating structures that can change their shape and function on-demand and over time. They can serve as tubular stents and grippers for biomedical applications. In this talk, related research projects and key results will be presented. Research in ultrasonic NDE over the past several decades has been supported by a growing use of specialist modeling tools, to calculate wave propagation behavior, the influences of materials, guided waves, and the scattering of waves from features and defects.

Model capabilities are now so good that simulations are being used in a similar manner to experiments, and some important research objectives are not possible at all without them. The NDE research group at Imperial College has worked over many years on the long-term development of some general purpose modeling tools, which have provided essential underpinning to the creation of new capabilities in NDE.

This presentation will use some examples of research achievements in NDE to illustrate the vital role of advanced modeling tools in their success. Session 6: Wednesday 6 March Piotr Mazurek , Technical Univ. Martin Kaltenbrunner , Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz Austria. A standard testing method for tensile actuators Paper Time: Artificial muscles are characterized by a number of different performance measures, such as actuation strain, stress, strain rate, work and power output.

A number of different testing methods are used to measure some of these parameters. The most commonly used test methods are the isotonic test that provides the actuation strain and the isometric test that gives a measure of the force or stress generated. Often the isotonic and isometric tests are performed at different levels of pre-strain.

A simple mechanics based approach is introduced that can provide all static actuation parameters from a simplified and standardised test method. The method is verified with experimental data collected from three types of artificial muscle: Taming the viscoelastic creep of dielectric elastomer actuators Paper Time: Samuel Rosset, The Univ. We present a simple method to suppress the viscoelastic creep of dielectric elastomer actuators DEA , and to calculate the voltage input waveform required for a DEA to obtain a targeted strain waveform such as a strain step, square signal, triangular signal, or arbitrary waveforms.

The parameters of the model can be identified with 2 simple characterisation tests: When used to generate strain step on a VHB actuator, the method leads to a response speed faster compared to a simple voltage step. Instability and dynamic performance of dielectric elastomers Paper Time: Fatigue life performances of silicone elastomer membranes for dielectric elastomer transducers: Yi Chen, Univ.

Dielectric Elastomer Transducers DETs are a promising technology for the development of actuators, generators and sensors with high performance and low cost. Practical application and economic viability of DETs is strongly affected by their reliability and lifetime, which depend on the maximum strain and electrical loads that are cyclically applied on such devices.

To date, only limited information is available on the fatigue life performances of dielectric elastomer materials and of the transducers made thereof. Characterization of dielectric elastomer actuators made of slide ring materials Paper Time: Jun Shintake, The Univ. Slide ring materials SRMs , a novel type of elastomer recently developed, are a promising material for dielectric elastomer actuators DEAs , because of their unique properties such as high dielectric permittivity and low hysteresis.

However, limited information is available on the electromechanical characteristics of SRMs. Here, we report on preliminary results of our ongoing study that is intended to clarify the electromechanical performance of SRMs, while comparing with other commercial elastomers VHB and CF Characterizations are performed using DEA samples with an aspect ratio of 10 length: All the elastomers were processed into the same DEA sample geometry, and were tested under identical experimental conditions.

The results show advantageous features of the SRMs, such as, larger actuated force and strain compared to the other commercial elastomers under the same electric field. Session 7: Wednesday 6 March 1: Manufacturing dielectric elastomer stack actuators: Konstantin B.

Yushkov, National Univ. We report a novel concept of an advanced hyperspectral imaging system based on acousto-optical tunable filters AOTFs with optional phase imaging modality. Visualization of phase objects is performed using an additional adjustable liquid crystal amplitude mask.

The mask shape is matched with the two-dimensional transfer function of the AOTF enabling bandpass spatial filtering. Label-free phase object visualization is demonstrated with unstained histological sections using diascopic incoherent illumination of a standard inverted light microscope. Towards accurate and label-free monitoring of bio-analytes using supercontinuum based multispectral photoacoustic spectroscopy in the extended near-infrared wavelength regime Paper Time: Adamu, Technical Univ.

Continuous monitoring of the bio-analytes inside the human body is of great interest for identification, management and treatment planning of various fatal diseases. Glucose is one such bio-analytes, which is highly coveted for the interrogation of a metabolic disorder known as Diabetes Mellitus DM.

Improper interrogation of DM would lead to the onset of severe chronic complications inside the human body. Therefore, we present a label-free method to establish the absorption characteristics of bio-analytes inside the human body and then accurately measure a wide range of glucose concentrations in vitro using a supercontinuum SC based multispectral photoacoustic spectroscopy MSPAS system.

Beyond fluorescence: Session 7: Plasmonics and Biosensors. Sunday 3 February 1: Ultrasensitive label-free optical fiber biosensor by evanescent wave coupled oscillation Conference Presentation Invited Paper Paper Time: Also, the specificity and sensitivity common to all assays must apply.

To be precise, to be fast, to be small, to be integrated and less cost….. Is it possible? In this talk, several results for improving the sensitivity, the specificity and the dynamic range of a label-free optical fiber biosensor will be discussed. First, a tapered optical fiber refractometer and biosensor modifying their unclad region with the coating of SiO2 and gold nanospheres will be compared to show that the combination of nanosphere-induced absorption and scattering losses and multimode propagation of tapered fiber gives a way to increase its detection range.

Second, the results of ultrasensitive label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with optical microfiber coupler is shown when it works around the turning point. This kind of immunosensor has great application potential for biomarkers detection due to its characteristics as simple scheme, fast response and ease to miniaturation.

Finally, the Fano and some other extraordinary effects by tapered optical fiber coupled WGMs will be discussed. The functions of several special modes may help to take the challenges of selectivity for plasma detection. We demonstrate a theoretical study of nano hole arrays perforated on a metallic layer gold arranged in hexagonal lattice.

The impact of the hole diameter, width of hybrid substrate and surrounding environment is also studied here. The optimal design is further tested by mimicking the presence of biomolecules on metal layer. Hence, such device can play an important role in designing a compact, cost effective, label free and real time POC system.

Frequency-locked optical microresonator biosensors for ultrasensitive doping detection in urine Conference Presentation Paper Time: Erol Ozgur, Kara E. Roberts, Ekin O. Ozgur, Adley N. Gin, Jaden R. Frequency locking for tracking optical resonances and associated resonance shifts of microcavities is an emergent technique for using optical microresonators as label-free biosensors.

In this study, we utilized this technique to detect human chorionic gonadotropin hCG in urine samples obtained from pregnant women. We show that frequency locked microtoroid biosensors can selectively detect hCG from real samples within a large concentration range of 1 fM to 10 nM, which is several orders of magnitude better than conventional methods such as mass spectrometry.

Sensitive detection of specific chemicals on site can be extremely powerful in many fields. Owing to its molecular fingerprinting capability, surface-enhanced Raman scattering has been one of the technological contenders. This technique can provide novel label-free molecular sensing capability with high sensitivity and specificity. Refractive index measurement using single fiber reflectance spectroscopy Paper Time: Zhang, Dirk J.

Van Leeuwen, Henricus J. A method using Single Fiber Reflectance spectroscopy SFR to measure the refractive index of transparent and turbid materials over a broad wavelength spectrum is presented and tested. For transparent liquid samples, the accuracy of the measurement is within 0. For liquid turbid media, the accuracy is within 0. For solid turbid samples, the accuracy critically depends on the optical contact between the fiber and sample surface.

It is demonstrated that this technique has the potential to measure glucose concentration and the refractive index of biological tissues in vivo. Label free biosensing enabled by ultraviolet plasmonics Conference Presentation Paper Time: Yunshan Wang, The Univ. UV plasmonic materials such as aluminum, zinc and magnesium have drawn attention in recent years due to their potential applications in plasmonic enhanced label free sensing and UV light sources and detectors.

In this paper, I present our efforts in using UV plasmonic structures to enhance native fluroescence of amino acids such as nanoaperture, bowtie antenna, etc. Session 8: OCT and Interferometry. Sunday 3 February 4: Adam Wax, Duke Univ. Detection of pre-cancerous tissues in the clinic remains an ongoing challenge.

Further directions to enhance clinical utility and ergonomic ease of use will also be discussed. In vivo multimodality ophthalmic imaging using surgical microscope-integrated intraoperative spectrally-encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry iSECTR Conference Presentation Invited Paper Paper Time: Yuankai Kenny K. Tao, Vanderbilt Univ.

Intraoperative spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry iSECTR overcomes critical barriers to clinical adoption of intraoperative optical coherence tomography. We presented optimized designs for multimodal ophthalmic imaging with surgical microscope-integrated iSECTR. Clinical translation of iSECTR will benefit real-time instrument and FOV tracking for imaging of surgical dynamics and image-guided ophthalmic surgery.

Label free imaging and sub-voxel sensing of biological structures Conference Presentation Invited Paper Paper Time: Martin J. Leahy, National Univ. Extracting information from the existing OCT signal allows us to add structural and functional information which can be overlaid on the basic OCT image. In this paper we will show several examples from our own work on label free imaging and sensing with OCT.

Correlation mapping OCT relies on speckle dynamics due to moving blood cells which cause a decorrelation with previous or adjacent frames which can be exploited to efficiently generate microcirculation maps. Nanosensitive OCT nsOCT is rather different to other methods in that it relies on the fact that the structural size is encoded in the spectrum detected.

Superresolution can be achieved without breaking the rules of information theory using extra information in depth which can pass through the objective lens without being blocked by the diffractive limit. We will further discuss the applications of these techniques for biological discovery and clinical diagnosis. We demonstrated a simple geometry, called spatially-offset optical coherence tomography SO-OCT , allowing singly scattered photons from depth to be retrieved whilst suppressing the presence of multiply scattered photons speckle.

Therefore, it improves signal detection to enhance the image contrast at depth in the presence of strong scattering samples. An approximately two-fold enhancement in image contrast at depths can be observed in different biological samples, such as zebrafish and krill.

The characteristic of cutaneous micro-vascular imaging of human skin has been proved to play an essential role to identify the skin disease in the field of dermatology. We have applied two spectrometers built in a nm-band phase-sensitive OCT PhS-OCT system with technique of optical coherence tomography angiography OCTA to sift the movement particle red blood cells from relatively static tissue.

However, Speckle noise and outlier point produced by sample scattering effect, has affected visualisation of capillary information. The phase noise due to the slight motion of sample or system error will distort the capillary imaging. Due to its complicated component, it is difficult to suppress it using traditional filtering.

In this paper, we present an algorithm which combining the complex differential variance CDV and Robust Principal Component Analysis RPCA algorithm to reject phase noise, and intrinsically achieve higher contrast imaging reduced speckle noise. Monday 4 February Show All Abstracts. Session 9: Polarization and Dark-Field Imaging. Monday 4 February 8: Scattered light contrast microscopy for reflectance imaging of thick tissue Conference Presentation Invited Paper Paper Time: Jeremy D.

Rogers, Univ. Label-free methods combined with reflection-mode geometry provide contrast for imaging intact tissue too thick for transmission-mode. However, reflection geometry precludes many useful contrast modalities, including transmitted phase and darkfield.

Optical scattering limits contrast and depth of imaging, but can also be exploited to quantify structure as diagnostic markers. Here, scattered light is also used to reconstruct transmission imaging modalities. A Scattered Light Contrast microscope collects the light surrounding the confocal illumination point for each image pixel and used to reconstruct phase contrast and darkfield images of retinal cells and structures, and combined with computational modeling, will advance diagnosis therapy monitoring.

Multispectral Mueller matrix imaging dark-field microscope for biological sample observation Paper Time: Japan ; Heather L. Durko, Goldie L. Goldstein, Alton H. Phillips, Nikon Research Corp. Hutchens, Harrison T. Thurgood, Photini F. Rice, Jennifer K. Barton, The Univ. The effectiveness of Mueller polarimetric imaging to enhance the difference between healthy and cancerous human colon tissue has been shown in some reports.

We have developed a Mueller matrix microscope system that combines a dark-field polarization illuminator with an imaging polarimeter to measure the polarization characteristics of human colon tissue samples. The wavelength of multispectral light source and polarization states of illumination system are controlled automatically, which enables the sequential acquisition of multispectral Mueller matrices of the sample.

Non-invasive spectral analysis of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in adipose derived stem cells using dark-field hyperspectral imaging technique Paper Time: Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult adipose tissue possess the regenerative capability to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes which in turn can be developed into adipose tissues, cartilages, and bones.

In the present study, dark-field based hyperspectral Imaging HSI technique has been utilized to image single as well as multiple osteoblasts and adipocytes in salt media grown on the glass substrate. The spectral-based study in visible-NIR range would lead to a high-throughput identification of patient-specific derived cells for clinical use preventing mass rejection, and advance our understanding of the behavior of stem cellular clusters undergoing adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation.

Session Autofluorescence, Nonlinear and Multiphoton Imaging. Monday 4 February 9: Oliver Hayden , Technische Univ. Unlimited resolution of saturated excitation microscopy with unusual nonlinear responses Invited Paper Paper Time: Elizabeth S. Berge, Univ. Heaster, Amy T. Shah, Vanderbilt Univ. Currently, the presence and activities of immune cells are assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, which require immune cell labeling and tissue fixation.

Activated immune cells, including T cells, NK cells, M1 macrophages, and neutrophils, require high rates of glycolysis to maintain immune activities. Therefore, we are developing autofluorescence imaging of NAD P H and FAD as a non-damaging, label-free method for imaging immune cell metabolism as a surrogate endpoint of immune cell function.

Two-photon excited fluorescence properties of glycation-associated collagen crosslinks that are correlated with tissue stiffness Conference Presentation Paper Time: Collagen crosslinks are closely associated with local tissue mechanical properties, which have a significant impact on cell fate and disease progression.

However, the crosslink fluorescence properties that are correlated with tissue stiffness aren't well understood. Thus, we characterized the two-photon excited fluorescence of three types of collagen gels over to nm excitation and to nm emission. We assessed crosslinks associated with non-enzymatic glycation, induced by ribose.

We identified two components, which peak at nm and nm, that were significantly correlated with the prominent stiffening detected in collagen gels treated with the same ribose protocol. Differentiation between normal and cancer cells with autofluorescence lifetime microscopy and nanosecond pulsed electric field effects Paper Time: Intracellular fluorescence lifetime images of the endogenous fluorophores of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD , which are well known as autofluorescence chromophores, were measured for the pairs of normal and cancer cells.

Then, it is found that the average lifetime of the NADH and FAD autofluorescence was shorter in cancer cells than in normal cells, indicating that the difference in metabolism between healthy and cancer cells alters the conditions for coenzymes such as NADH and FAD. Nanosecond pulsed electric field effects have been also examined for intracellular function of normal and cancer cells.

Spectroscopy and Scattering II. Monday 4 February Jochen R. Guck, TU Dresden Germany. Brillouin microscopy for tissue and cell biomechanics Invited Paper Paper Time: Giuliano Scarcelli, Univ. Brillouin spectroscopy has been widely used for decades to characterize material mechanical properties.

However, due to the weakness of its signal, it was never considered viable in biomedicine. Developing a spectrometer with million-fold improved throughput and combining it with a confocal microscope, we developed Brillouin microscopy, a 3D imaging modality that uses the longitudinal modulus as contrast mechanism for imaging and demonstrated its application in a variety of fields from ophthalmology to cellular biomechanics.

Viscoelastic mapping of biological samples using Brillouin microscopy Conference Presentation Paper Time: The viscoelastic material properties of biological systems are increasingly recognized as important factors during developmental and pathological processes and they are assumed to play a crucial role in surviving extreme environmental conditions for certain cell types.

Confocal Brillouin microscopy gives access to the viscoelastic material properties of single cells and tissues in a contact- and label-free manner and with a high spatial resolution. Here, we apply Brillouin microscopy in combination with quantitative phase imaging to determine the viscoelastic material properties of the spinal cord region in living zebrafish larva. We find a transiently decreasing Brillouin shift after spinal cord injury.

Quantitative analysis of malarial hemozoin using spectroscopic transient absorption microscopy Paper Time: Kai-Chih Huang, Boston Univ. Malaria is the world's most important tropical parasitic disease. Within their host red blood cell RBC , Plasmodium falciparum parasites digest hemoglobin thereby releasing toxic free heme, which is converted to an insoluble crystalline product called hemozoin.

Thus, quantitative imaging of hemozoin can detect malaria parasites and allow screening for drugs targeting the hemoglobin degradation pathway. Here, we show that spectroscopic transient absorption TA microscopy can quantitatively differentiate hemozoin crystal within the parasite from host cell hemoglobin by the signature of TA decay rate. Our system is sensitive to detect P. Intraoperative surgical applications of snapshot hyperspectral imaging Canceled Paper Time: Snapshot hyperspectral imaging HSI is a technique to capture hyperspectral images with a single exposure.

While this method has been used extensively in astronomy, applications in other domains have been rare. In this work we describe a custom fabricated snapshot imager and associated medical applications for real-time, intraoperative settings. We construct a camera consisting of a single housing containing a visible and infrared sensor, linked via a beam splitter.

In front of each sensor is a Bayer-like array with 16 visible and 25 infrared filters, arranged in a grid pattern. An HSI sensor is ideal for medical imaging as it is non-invasive and non-ionizing. There is currently an unmet need for examining anatomical structures beyond the visible human spectrum, especially in a manner that is unobtrusive to the surgical workflow.

We present three clinical applications: Axially offset differential interference contrast correlation spectroscopy Paper Time: Griffin, Garth J. Simpson, Purdue Univ. Axially-offset differential interference contrast correlation spectroscopy ADIC-CS in which the two beam paths in differential interference contrast are axially rather than laterally displaced, is developed for protein crystal size distribution determination.

Particle size histograms of the same samples measured by simultaneous second harmonic generation correlation spectroscopy suggesting good agreement between independent measurements. Characterization of a multimodal endoscopically deployable veterinary spectroscopy and imaging probe to determine therapeutic response in a murine orthotopic tumor model Paper Time: Ariel I. Mundo, Gage J.

Greening, Timothy J. Muldoon, Univ. We have developed a small-diameter 0. The probe has been characterized via a look-up table based inverse model using liquid phantoms: Spontaneous Raman II. Monday 4 February 1: High-sensitivity detection of Raman vibrations in the impulsive limit with Doppler Raman spectroscopy Conference Presentation Paper Time: David R.

Smith, Colorado State Univ. United States ; David G. Winters, Scott R. Wilson, Randy A. Bartels, Colorado State Univ. Optical microscopy and spectroscopy are widely used in multiple research areas relating to biology. Label-free spectroscopy and imaging are valuable tools for interrogation of biological samples without the need for exogenous labels, allowing for investigation of unperturbed biological systems.

We demonstrate a coherent Raman technique called Doppler Raman spectroscopy which combines impulsive excitation with a novel frequency shift detection scheme for rapid, high sensitivity detection of low to medium frequency vibrational modes from cm Sensitive detection of low-frequency Raman vibrational modes unlocks a suite of potential biological and chemical dynamics like protein conformational changes and protein super complex formation.

Benjamin Lochocki, Tjado H. Morrema, Vrije Univ. Amsterdam Netherlands ; Femke H. Bouwman, Jeroen J. Here, we present new insights on spectral changes in the fingerprint region when imaging AD tissue containing plaques. Their Raman spectra can be matched by subsequently staining the same Raman imaged slice with Thioflavin.

Deposits can be verified in location and occurrence by overlaying histochemical stained adjacent tissue slices. Wide-field intraoperative Raman imaging technique to guide cytoreductive surgery for advanced stages of ovarian cancer Conference Presentation Paper Time: Ovarian cancer is the fifth most deadly cancer among women in North America.

Because this type of cancer is often diagnosed late, the first step is often surgery. Therefore, there is a need for a new imaging technique that can detect cancer tissue with high specificity and sensitivity during cytoreductive procedures. We developed an intraoperative wide-field Raman spectroscopy imaging system to be used alongside tissue classification models trained to recognize cancer tissue using artificial intelligence techniques.

These developments pave the way for a new generation of wide-field Raman spectroscopy techniques for macroscopic tissue characterization during surgery. Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic method for endometriosis disease Conference Presentation Paper Time: Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium grows outside of the uterus.

The correct and the exact diagnosis can be done by laparoscopy. During the disease the amount of molecules such as lipids and proteins i. CA in the blood serum changes. In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool for detecting the changes in blood serum contents for diagnosis of endometriosis. According to the analysis results, the sensitivity and the specificity of Raman spectroscopy analysis were found to be As a complementary method to laparoscopy, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of endometriosis.

Multi-spectral fiber spectroscopy methods as solutions for label-free medical diagnostics Conference Presentation Paper Time: Lithuania ; Boris Mizaikoff, Univ. The Multi-spectral Fiber MSF- System was validated for the label-free medical diagnostics via various human tissues cancer investigation: Matching pairs of malignant and normal tissue samples were investigated using a Mid IR-absorption, Raman scattering, Diffuse NIR-reflection, and auto-fluorescence spectroscopy methods through respectively prepared and adjusted fiber probes.

To increase the data information content, the measurements on tissues were performed in the same preselected positions. Obtained spectral data were evaluated by multivariate discrimination analysis to enable clear separation of pathogenic and normal tissues. Raman hyperspectral imaging of transferrin-bound iron in cancer cells Paper Time: Ting Chean Khoo, Univ.

Khmaladze, Univ. Raman scattering spectroscopy is used to analyze molecular vibrational and rotational information in a sample. Raman spectroscopy provides fast, simple and non-invasive qualitative and quantitative analysis without elaborate sample preparation. We used Raman micro-spectroscopy to visualize and quantify the amount of iron-bound transferrin Tf , which is the main carrier of iron into the cells.

We have mapped the iron contents of iron-loaded Tf, oxalate-Tf, a chemical Tf mutant unable to release iron and iron-depleted Tf in cancer cells. We have shown that the amount of Tf bound iron in cells is dependent on the internalization and endocytic trafficking of Tf. Raman hyperspectral imaging of different salivary gland cell types for tissue engineering Paper Time: We have collected and analyzed Raman spectra of embryonic epithelial and mesenchymal progenitor cells, and we were able to detect characteristic differences between them from several Raman peaks.

The long-term goal of this project is to identify a set of Raman signatures that can be used to monitor both the viability and differentiation state of organoids. The Raman spectroscopic system is poised to offer a simple and rapid method for monitoring the quality of these tissue engineered organoids, which is required during their production and prior to implantation in vivo.

Raman imaging of diatomite nanoparticles uptake in cancer cells Canceled Paper Time: In this work, we studied the internalization kinetics and spatial distribution of small interfering RNA siRNA -diatomite nanoparticles DNPs complex in human lung epidermoid carcinoma cell line H up to 72 h, by using Raman microscopy.

The Raman analysis showed that the siRNA-DNPs were internalized and co-localized in lipid vesicles within 18 h, after that a saturation condition was achieved with an efficient distribution of DNPs inside the cell cytosol and in the perinuclear region up to 72h.

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