Maya Yucatan In Belize Joshua Project

Google+ Pinterest LinkedIn Tumblr +

Archived from the original on 9 October Most indigenous Guatemalans are of the Maya people , namely K'iche' Retrieved 19 February Guatemala is a country of distinct fauna. There is a strong interest within the international community for archaeological sites like the city of Tikal. Torres Espinoza, Enrique It has some known species.

Cenote Maya Park Yucatan Youtube

On 31 January , a group of indigenous K'iche' took over the Spanish Embassy to protest army massacres in the countryside. The Guatemalan government armed forces launched an assault that killed almost everyone inside in a fire that consumed the building. The Guatemalan government claimed that the activists set the fire, thus immolating themselves.

As a result, the government of Spain broke off diplomatic relations with Guatemala. He continued the bloody campaign of torture, forced disappearances , and " scorched earth " warfare. As a result of the Army's "scorched earth" tactics in the countryside, more than 45, Guatemalans fled across the border to Mexico. The Mexican government placed the refugees in camps in Chiapas and Tabasco.

The Guatemalan Civil War ended in with a peace accord between the guerrillas and the government, negotiated by the United Nations through intense brokerage by nations such as Norway and Spain. Both sides made major concessions. The guerrilla fighters disarmed and received land to work. According to the U.

In the last few years, millions of documents related to crimes committed during the civil war have been found abandoned by the former Guatemalan police. The families of over 45, Guatemalan activists who disappeared during the civil war are now reviewing the documents, which have been digitized. This could lead to further legal actions.

During the first ten years of the civil war, the victims of the state-sponsored terror were primarily students, workers, professionals, and opposition figures, but in the last years they were thousands of mostly rural Maya farmers and non-combatants. More than Maya villages were destroyed and over 1 million people became refugees or displaced within Guatemala.

This report summarized testimony and statements of thousands of witnesses and victims of repression during the Civil War. A priest was convicted as an accomplice and was sentenced to 20 years in prison. More than one million people were forced to flee their homes and hundreds of villages were destroyed. It concluded in that state actions constituted genocide.

In some areas such as Baja Verapaz , the Truth Commission found that the Guatemalan state engaged in an intentional policy of genocide against particular ethnic groups in the Civil War. Since the peace accords Guatemala has had both economic growth and successive democratic elections, most recently in He assumed office on 14 January In January Efrain Rios Montt, the former dictator of Guatemala, appeared in a Guatemalan court on genocide charges.

During the hearing, the government presented evidence of over incidents involving at least 1, deaths, 1, rapes, and the displacement of nearly 30, Guatemalans during his month rule from The prosecution wanted him incarcerated because he was viewed as a flight risk but he remained free on bail, under house arrest and guarded by the Guatemalan National Civil Police PNC.

On 10 May , Rios Montt was found guilty and sentenced to 80 years in prison. It marked the first time that a national court had found a former head of state guilty of genocide. He was acquitted in May , by a panel of judges that threw out some of the evidence and discounted certain witnesses as unreliable.

Officials received bribes from importers in exchange for discounted import tariffs, [] a practice rooted in a long tradition of customs corruption in the country, as a fund-raising tactic of successive military governments for counterinsurgency operations during Guatemala's year-long civil war. Within days, over 10, people RSVPed that they would attend.

Organisers made clear that no political party or group was behind the event, and instructed protesters at the event to follow the law. They also urged people to bring water, food and sunblock, but not to cover their faces or wear political party colors. Baldetti resigned a few days later.

She was forced to remain in Guatemala when the United States revoked her visa. The Guatemalan government arraigned her, since it had enough evidence to suspect her involvement in the "La Linea" scandal. The prominence of US Ambassador Todd Robinson in the Guatemalan political scene once the scandal broke led to the suspicion that the US government was behind the investigation, perhaps because it needed an honest government in Guatemala to counter the presence of China and Russia in the region.

The UN anti-corruption committee has reported on other cases since then, and more than 20 government officials have stepped down. Two of those cases involved two former presidential private secretaries: But a Friday press conference brought the crisis to its peak: Baldetti was arrested the same day and an impeachment was requested for the president. Several cabinet members resigned and the clamor for the president's resignation grew after Perez Molina defiantly assured the nation in a televised message broadcast on 23 August that he was not going to resign.

Thousands of protesters took to the streets again, this time to demand the increasingly isolated president's resignation. Guatemala's Congress named a commission of five legislators to consider whether to remove the president's immunity from prosecution. The Supreme Court approved. A major day of action kicked off early on 27 August, with marches and roadblocks across the country.

Urban groups who had spearheaded regular protests since the scandal broke in April, on the 27th sought to unite with the rural and indigenous organizations who orchestrated the road blocks. The strike in Guatemala City was full of a diverse and peaceful crowd ranging from the indigenous poor to the well-heeled, and it included many students from public and private universities.

Hundreds of schools and businesses closed in support of the protests. The attorney general's office released its own statement, calling for the president's resignation "to prevent ungovernability that could destabilize the nation. The private sector called for his resignation; however, he also managed to get support from entrepreneurs that were not affiliated with the private sector chambers: Asked whether he planned to resign, he wrote: Others warned that suspending the vote could lead to an institutional vacuum.

Two mountain chains enter Guatemala from west to east, dividing Guatemala into three major regions: These three regions vary in climate, elevation, and landscape, providing dramatic contrasts between hot, humid tropical lowlands and colder, drier highland peaks. The rivers are short and shallow in the Pacific drainage basin, larger and deeper in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico drainage basins.

Guatemala's location between the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean makes it a target for hurricanes such as Hurricane Mitch in and Hurricane Stan in October , which killed more than 1, people. The damage was not wind-related, but rather due to significant flooding and resulting mudslides.

The most recent was Tropical Storm Agatha in late May , which killed more than Guatemala's highlands lie along the Motagua Fault , part of the boundary between the Caribbean and North American tectonic plates. This fault has been responsible for several major earthquakes in historic times, including a 7.

In addition, the Middle America Trench , a major subduction zone lies off the Pacific coast. Here, the Cocos Plate is sinking beneath the Caribbean Plate, producing volcanic activity inland of the coast. Guatemala has 37 volcanoes, four of them active: Natural disasters have a long history in this geologically active part of the world. For example, two of the three moves of the capital of Guatemala have been due to volcanic mudflows in and earthquakes in Guatemala has 14 ecoregions ranging from mangrove forests to both ocean littorals with 5 different ecosystems.

Guatemala has listed wetlands, including five lakes, 61 lagoons, rivers, and four swamps. Guatemala is a country of distinct fauna. It has some known species. Guatemala is home to at least 8, species of vascular plants, of which Guatemala is a constitutional democratic republic whereby the President of Guatemala is both head of state and head of government , and of a multi-party system.

Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Congress of the Republic. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Jimmy Morales assumed office on 14 January Guatemala has long claimed all or part of the territory of neighboring Belize.

Due to this territorial dispute, Guatemala did not recognize Belize's independence until 6 September , [] but the dispute is not resolved. Negotiations are currently under way under the auspices of the Organization of American States to conclude it. Guatemala has a modest military, with between 15, and 20, personnel.

Guatemala is divided into 22 departments Spanish: Killings and death squads have been common in Guatemala since the end of the civil war in They had significant influence, now somewhat lessened. It was the first ruling by the court against the Guatemalan state for any of the massacres reported in its s scorched-earth campaign.

In , Guatemala became the first country to officially recognize femicide , the murder of a female because of her gender, as a crime. However, Guatemala faces many social problems and is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. The income distribution is highly unequal with more than half of the population below the national poverty line and just over , 3.

Remittances from Guatemalans living in United States now constitute the largest single source of foreign income two thirds of exports and one tenth of GDP. Some of Guatemala's main exports are fruits, vegetables, flowers, handicrafts, cloths and others. In the face of a rising demand for biofuels , the country is growing and exporting an increasing amount of raw materials for biofuel production, especially sugar cane and palm oil.

Critics say that this development leads to higher prices for staple foods like corn, a major ingredient in the Guatemalan diet. As a consequence of the subsidization of US American corn, Guatemala imports nearly half of its corn from the United States that is using 40 percent of its crop harvest for biofuel production.

Mines produce gold, silver, zinc, cobalt and nickel. Organic coffee, sugar, textiles, fresh vegetables, and bananas are the country's main exports. The peace accords that ended the decades-long civil war removed a major obstacle to foreign investment. Tourism has become an increasing source of revenue for Guatemala thanks to the new foreign investment. Guatemala received around two million tourists annually.

In recent years, an increase in the number of cruise ships have been visiting Guatemalan seaports, leading to higher tourist numbers. Natural beauty destinations include locations such as Lake Atitlan and Semuc Champey. There is a strong interest within the international community for archaeological sites like the city of Tikal. To note, Tikal was built and inhabited in a period where the culture had its greatest literary and artistic expression, and was ruled by a dynasty of 16 kings.

The Maya of Tikal built many temples, a ball park, altars and stelae in high and low relief. Guatemala is very popular for its archaeological sites, pre-Hispanic cities as well as tourist-religious centers like the Basilica of Esquipulas in the city of Esquipulas, and the beautiful beaches on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Guatemala. Other tourist destinations are the national parks and other protected areas such as the Maya Biosphere Reserve.

Guatemala has a population of 16,, est. Guatemala is heavily centralized: The estimated median age in Guatemala is 20 years old, The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in was A significant number of Guatemalans live outside of their country.

The majority of the Guatemalan diaspora is located in the United States of America, with estimates ranging from , [] to 1,, Guatemala is populated by a variety of ethnic, cultural, racial, and linguistic groups. Most indigenous Guatemalans are of the Maya people , namely K'iche' White Guatemalans of European descent, also called Criollo , make up German settlers are credited with bringing the tradition of Christmas trees to Guatemala.

The population includes about , Salvadorans. Vincent, live mainly in Livingston and Puerto Barrios. Afro-Guatemalans and mulattos descended primarily from banana plantation workers. A growing Korean community in Guatemala City and in nearby Mixco , numbers about 50, Guatemala's sole official language is Spanish, spoken by 93 percent of the population as either the first or second language.

Twenty-one Mayan languages are spoken, especially in rural areas, as well as two non-Mayan Amerindian languages: Xinca , which is indigenous to the country, and Garifuna , an Arawakan language spoken on the Caribbean coast. According to the Language Law of , these languages are unrecognized as National Languages. The peace accords signed in December provide for the translation of some official documents and voting materials into several indigenous languages see summary of main substantive accords and mandate the provision of interpreters in legal cases for non-Spanish speakers.

The accord also sanctioned bilingual education in Spanish and indigenous languages. It is common for indigenous Guatemalans to learn or speak between two and five of the nation's other languages, in addition to Spanish. There are also significant numbers of German , Chinese , French and English language speakers. Throughout the 20th century there have been many developments in the integration of Mayan languages into the Guatemalan society and educational system.

Originating from political reasons, these processes have aided the revival of some Mayan languages and advanced bilingual education in the country. In , in order to overcome "the Indian problem", the Guatemalan government founded The Institute Indigents ta National NH , the purpose of which was to teach literacy to Mayan children in their mother tongue instead of Spanish, to prepare the ground for later assimilation of the latter.

The teaching of literacy in the first language, which received support from the UN, significantly advanced in , when the SIL Summer Institute of Linguistics , located in Dallas, Texas, partnered with the Guatemalan Ministry of Education; within 2 years, numerous written works in Mayan languages had been printed and published, and vast advancement was done in the translation of the New Testament.

Further efforts to integrate the indigenous into the Ladino [] society were made in the following years, including the invention of a special alphabet to assist Mayan students transition to Spanish, and bilingual education in the Q'eqchi' area. When Spanish became the official language of Guatemala in , the government started several programs, such as the Bilingual Castellanizacion Program and the Radiophonic Schools, to accelerate the move of Mayan students to Spanish.

Unintentionally, the efforts to integrate the indigenous using language, especially the new alphabet, gave institutions tools to use Mayan tongues in schools, and while improving Mayan children's learning, they left them unequipped to learn in a solely Spanish environment. So, an additional expansion of bilingual education took place in , when an experimental program in which children were to be instructed in their mother tongue until they are fluent enough in Spanish was created.

The program proved successful when the students of the pilot showed higher academic achievements than the ones in the Spanish-only control schools. In , when the pilot was to finish, bilingual education was made official in Guatemala. Christianity continues to remain strong and vital for the life of Guatemalan society , but its composition has changed over generations of social and political unrest.

Roman Catholicism , introduced by the Spanish during the colonial era, remains the dominant church, accounting for Protestants , most of them Evangelical most Protestants are called Evangelicos in Latin America made up A more recent survey reveals Catholics at Over the past two decades, particularly since the end of the civil war, Guatemala has seen heightened missionary activity.

Protestant denominations have grown markedly in recent decades, chiefly Evangelical and Pentecostal varieties; growth is particularly strong among the ethnic Maya population, with the National Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Guatemala maintaining 11 indigenous-language presbyteries.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has grown from 40, members in to , in , and continues to expand. Traditional Maya religion persists through the process of inculturation , in which certain practices are incorporated into Catholic ceremonies and worship when they are sympathetic to the meaning of Catholic belief.

The government has instituted a policy of providing altars at every Maya ruin to facilitate traditional ceremonies. During the colonial era Guatemala received immigrants settlers only from Spain. Subsequently, Guatemala received waves of immigration from Europe in the mid 19th century and early 20th century. Many European immigrants to Guatemala were politicians, refugees, and entrepreneurs as well as families looking to settle.

Up to Guatemala was the Central American country that received the most immigrants, behind Costa Rica , and large numbers of immigrants are still received today. Also, beginning with the First World War , the immigrant population is being strengthened by Jewish immigration. During the second half of the twentieth century, Latin American immigration grew in Guatemala, particularly from other Central American countries, Mexico, Cuba, and Argentina, although most of these immigrants stayed only temporarily before going to their final destinations in the United States.

Guatemala has among the worst health outcomes in Latin America with some of the highest infant mortality rates, and one of the lowest life expectancies at birth in the region. Healthcare has received different levels of support from different political administrations who disagree on how best to manage distribution of services via a private or a public entity and the scale of financing that should be made available.

Total healthcare spending, both public and private, has remained constant at between 6. Guatemala has a plan to increase literacy over the next 20 years. The government runs a number of public elementary and secondary-level schools, as youth in Guatemala do not fully participate in education. These schools are free, though the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, and transportation makes them less accessible to the poorer segments of society and significant numbers of poor children do not attend school.

Many middle and upper-class children go to private schools. Organizations such as Child Aid , Pueblo a Pueblo , and Common Hope , which train teachers in villages throughout the Central Highlands region, are working to improve educational outcomes for children. Lack of training for rural teachers is one of the key contributors to Guatemala's low literacy rates.

Guatemala City is home to many of the nation's libraries and museums, including the National Archives, the National Library, and the Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, which has an extensive collection of Maya artifacts. Most of the municipalities in the country have at least a small museum.

Guatemala has produced many indigenous artists who follow centuries-old Pre-Columbian traditions. Reflecting Guatemala's colonial and post-colonial history, encounters with multiple global art movements also have produced a wealth of artists who have combined the traditional primitivist or naive aesthetic with European, North American, and other traditions.

Guatemalan music comprises a number of styles and expressions. Guatemalan social change has been empowered by music such as nueva cancion , which blends together histories, present-day issues, and the political values and struggles of common people. The Maya had an intense musical practice, as documented by their iconography.

Many composers from the Renaissance, baroque, classical, romantic, and contemporary music styles have contributed works of all genres. The marimba , which is like a wooden xylophone, [] is the national instrument and its music is widely found in Guatemala.

The Historia General de Guatemala has published a series of CDs compiling the historical music of Guatemala, in which every style is represented, from the Maya, colonial, independent and republican eras to the present. A beautifully painted mural that was discovered at the turn of the 20th century by Thomas Gann at Santa Rita reflects strong influences from the Mixteca people of Oaxaca.

There is also the importation of plumbate pottery from the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Guatemala. The introduction of metallurgy and the presence of gold and copper objects during this time also indicate contacts with more distant areas of Western Mexico and Costa Rica. Much physical evidence of ancient Maya civilization remains today in the many pyramid temples, palaces, ball courts and sacbeobs.

But the fact that these were constructed without the use of the wheel or beasts of burden continues to fascinate us. The architecture of the Maya not only made use of the corbel arch but certain temples were positioned so that precise observations of the equinox, solstice and other astronomic events could be made by sighting planets and stars along defined line positions on special buildings.

The Maya used their knowledge of astronomy to produce an extremely accurate calendar. Their Maya Calendar computed length of the tropical year was This knowledge was used to schedule optimum planting and harvesting times for their intensive agricultural system that made use of terracing, drainage canals, raised fields and tree cropping to feed huge populations.

The video below shows the traditional Belize Maya Deer Dance,. Their socio-political structure included a hierarchy of priests, elites, artisans and farmers. The Maya religion regards the world as a quadrangle supported at the corners by deities known as bacab, and at center by a giant Ceiba tree that reaches from the sky to Xibalba, the underworld.

Their deities such as Kinich Ahau sun god , Chac rain god and Ix Che goddess of healing were equally benevolent as they were malevolent. Sacred books like the Popol Vuh also provide us with descriptions of Maya creation myths and the important role of the underworld. The Maya developed a logo-syllabic system of writing that incorporated hundreds of hieroglyphic symbols and was used primarily for recording important historical events.

This information was inscribed on stone monuments, wooden lintels, ceramics and in codices books produced from bark paper. Their artisans produced decorative pottery, murals, figurines, whistles and carvings in jade, obsidian, slate human and animal bone. On 10 July , the country gained independence from the United Kingdom , retaining the then reigning monarch, Elizabeth II, [5] as monarch of the newly formed monarchy of The Bahamas.

The monarchy of Barbados has its roots in the English monarchy , under the authority of which the island was claimed in and first colonized in , [7] and later the British monarchy. By the 18th century, Barbados became one of the main seats of the British Crown's authority in the British West Indies , and then, after an attempt in at a federation with other West Indian colonies , continued as a self-governing colony until, on 30 November , the country gained independence from the United Kingdom , retaining the then reigning monarch, Elizabeth II, as monarch of the newly formed monarchy of Barbados.

In , Elizabeth's cousin, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent , opened the second session of the first parliament of the newly established country, [7] before the Queen herself, along with Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, toured Barbados. Elizabeth returned for her Silver Jubilee in , and again in , to mark the th anniversary of the establishment of the Barbadian parliament. It was announced on 26 November that the referendum would be held in , together with the general election that year.

On 21 September , the country gained independence from the United Kingdom, retaining the then reigning monarch, Elizabeth II, as monarch of the newly formed monarchy of Belize. Canada's aboriginal peoples had systems of governance organised in a fashion similar to the Occidental concept of monarchy; [15] European explorers often referred to hereditary leaders of tribes as kings.

The country became a self-governing confederation on 1 July , recognised as a kingdom in its own right, [17] but did not have full legislative autonomy from the British Crown until the passage of the Statute of Westminster on 11 December , [18] retaining the then reigning monarch, George V , as monarch of the newly formed monarchy of Canada.

The monarch is represented in the country by the Governor General of Canada , Julie Payette , and in each of the provinces by a lieutenant governor. The monarchy of Grenada has its roots in the French monarchy, under the authority of which the islands were first colonised in the mid 17th century, and later the English and then British monarchy, as a Crown colony.

The monarchy of Jamaica has its roots in the Spanish monarchy, under the authority of which the islands were first colonised in the late 16th century, and later the English and then British monarchy, as a Crown colony. On 6 August , the country gained independence from the United Kingdom, retaining the then reigning monarch, Elizabeth II, as monarch of the newly created monarchy of Jamaica.

Former Prime Minister of Jamaica Portia Simpson-Miller has expressed an intention to oversee the process required to change Jamaica to a republic by ; she originally stated this would be complete by August of that year. Patterson , advocated making Jamaica into a republic by The monarchy of Saint Kitts and Nevis has its roots in the English and French monarchies, under the authority of which the islands were first colonised in the early 17th century, and later the British monarchy, as a Crown colony.

On 10 June , the country gained independence from the United Kingdom , retaining the then reigning monarch, Elizabeth II, as monarch of the newly created monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda. The Caribs who occupied the island of Saint Lucia in pre-Columbian times had a complex society, with hereditary kings and shamans.

The present monarchy has its roots in the Dutch , French, and English monarchies, under the authority of which the island was first colonised in , and later the British monarchy, as a Crown colony. On 22 February , the country gained independence from the United Kingdom, retaining the then reigning monarch, Elizabeth II, as monarch of the newly created monarchy of Saint Lucia.

The present monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has its roots in the French monarchy, under the authority of which the island was first colonised in , and later the British monarchy, as a Crown colony. On 27 October , the country gained independence from the United Kingdom, retaining the then reigning monarch, Elizabeth II, as monarch of the newly created monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

Greenland is one of the three constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark , with Queen Margrethe II as the reigning sovereign. The territory first came under monarchical rule in , when the populace accepted the overlordship of the King of Norway ; by , Norway had entered into a personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark, which became more entrenched with the union of the kingdoms into DenmarkNorway in After the dissolution of this arrangement in , Greenland remained as a Danish colony, and, after its role in World War II , was granted its special status within the Kingdom of Denmark in The monarch is represented in the territory by the Rigsombudsmand [32] High Commissioner , Mikaela Engell.

Aruba was first settled under the authority of the Spanish Crown circa , but was acquired by the Dutch in , under whose control the island has remained, save for an interval between and , when Aruba was captured by the Royal Navy of King George III. The former Netherlands Antilles were originally discovered by explorers sent in the s by the King of Spain, but were eventually conquered by the Dutch West India Company in the 17th century, whereafter the islands remained under the control of the Dutch Crown as colonial territories.

The Netherlands Antilles achieved the status of an autonomous country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in , from which Aruba was split in as a separate constituent country of the larger kingdom. The Caribbean islands were colonised under the authority or the direct instruction of a number of European monarchs, mostly English , Dutch , or Spanish , throughout the first half of the 17th century.

Colonies were merged and split through various reorganizations of the Crown's Caribbean regions, until 19 December , the date that Anguilla became a British Crown territory in its own right. The monarch is represented in these jurisdictions by: By , however, the islands were under full British control.

Before 28 October , the succession order in the American Commonwealth realms, as well as those American territories under the British crown, adhered to male-preference cognatic primogeniture , by which succession passed first to an individual's sons, in order of birth, and subsequently to daughters, again in order of birth.

However, with the possible exception of Canada , following the legislative changes giving effect to the Perth Agreement , succession is by absolute primogeniture for those born after 28 October , whereby the eldest child inherits the throne regardless of gender. As these states share the person of their monarch with other countries, all with legislative independence, the change was implemented only once the necessary legal processes were completed in each realm.

Those possessions under the Danish and Dutch crowns already adhere to absolute primogeniture. Most pre-Columbian cultures of the Americas developed and flourished for centuries under monarchical systems of government. By the time Europeans arrived on the continents in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, however, many of these civilizations had ceased to function, due to various natural and artificial causes.

Those that remained up to that period were eventually defeated by the agents of European monarchical powers, who, while they remained on the European continent, thereafter established new American administrations overseen by delegated viceroys. Some of these colonies were, in turn, replaced by either republican states or locally founded monarchies, ultimately overtaking the entire American holdings of some European monarchs; those crowns that once held or claim territory in the Americas include the Spanish , Portuguese , French , Swedish , and Russian , and even Baltic Courland , Holy Roman , Prussian and Norwegian.

Certain of the locally established monarchies were themselves also overthrown through revolution , leaving five current pretenders to American thrones. The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia was a short-lived attempt at establishing a constitutional monarchy, founded by French lawyer and adventurer Orelie-Antoine de Tounens in Nominally, the "kingdom" encompassed the present-day Argentine part of Patagonia and a small segment of Chile , where Mapuche peoples were fighting to maintain their sovereignty against the advancing Chilean and Argentine armed forces.

After several fruitless attempts to return to his kingdom thwarted by Chilean and Argentine authorities , Tounens died penniless in in Tourtoirac , France. The previous pretender renounced his claims to the Patagonian throne, [43] even though a few Mapuches continue to recognise the Araucanian monarchy. The Aztec Empire existed in the central Mexican region between c.

Tlacopan , Texcoco , and the capital of the empire, Tenochtitlan. In September of that same year, the Portuguese parliament threatened to diminish Brazil back to the status of a colony, dismantle all the royal agencies in Rio de Janeiro, and demanded Pedro return to Lisbon. Prince Pedro became the first Emperor of Brazil on 12 October , with the title of Pedro I on that date, he was formally offered the Throne of the newly created Empire, accepted it, and was acclaimed as monarch , and his coronation took place on 1 December There are two pretenders to the defunct Brazilian throne: The Brazilian constitution of called for a general vote on the restoration of the monarchy, which was held in The entire island of Hispaniola was first claimed on 5 December , by Christopher Columbus , for Queen Isabella , and the first Viceroy of the Americas was established along with a number of colonies throughout the Island.

With the later discovery of Mexico and Peru many of the early settlers left for the main land, but some twelve cities and a hundred thousand souls remained, mainly in the Eastern part of the Island. Through the Treaty of Riswick in , King Louis XIV received the western third of the Island from Spain as retribution and formalized the first French pirate settlement in existence since the mids, [50] with the colony administered by a governor-general representing the French crown , [51] an arrangement that stood until the French Revolution toppled the monarchy of France on 21 September Though the French government retained control over the region of Saint-Domingue , on 22 September , Jean-Jacques Dessalines , who had served as Governor-General of Saint-Domingue since 30 November , declared himself as head of an independent Empire of Haiti , with his coronation as Emperor Jacques I taking place on 6 October that year.

After his assassination on 17 October , the country was split in half, the northern portion eventually becoming the Kingdom of Haiti on 28 March , with Henri Christophe installed as King Henri I. Two years later, on 26 August , the Haitian national assembly declared the president as Emperor Faustin I, thereby re-establishing the Empire of Haiti.

But this monarchical reincarnation was to be short lived as well, as a revolution broke out in the empire in , resulting in Faustin abdicating the throne on 18 January The Inca Empire spread across the north western parts of South America between and , ruled over by a monarch addressed as the Sapa Inca , Sapa , or Apu.

The Inca civilization emerged in the Kingdom of Cusco , and expanded to become the Ttahuantin-suyu , or "land of the four sections", each ruled by a governor or viceroy called Apu-cuna , under the leadership of the central Sapa Inca. The Inca Empire eventually fell to the Spanish in , when the last Sapa Inca of the empire, Atahualpa , was captured and executed on 29 August.

Nonetheless, the Maya civilization began its decline in the 8th and 9th centuries, and by the time of the arrival of the Spanish, only a few kingdoms remained, such as the Peten Itza kingdom , Mam , Kaqchikel , and the K'iche' Kingdom of Q'umarkaj. With the victory of the Mexicans over the Spanish imperial army in , the Viceroyalty of New Spain came to a conclusion.

The newly independent Mexican Congress still desired that King Ferdinand VII , or another member of the House of Bourbon , agree to be installed as Emperor of Mexico, thereby forming a type of personal union with Spain. The Spanish monarchy, however, refused to recognise the new state, and decreed that it would allow no other European prince to take the throne of Mexico. In order to end the unrest, Augustine abdicated on 19 March and left the country, and the Mexican monarchy was abolished.

After hearing that the situation in Mexico had only grown worse since his abdication, Iturbide returned from England on 11 May , but was detained upon setting foot in Mexico and, without trial, was executed. Archduke Maximilian, brother of the Emperor of Austria , was elevated as Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico , thereby re-establishing the Mexican monarchy, but the new emperor ultimately did not bow to Napoleon's wishes, leading the latter to withdraw the majority of his influence from Mexico.

Regardless, Maximilian was still viewed as a French puppet, and an illegitimate leader of the country. The Emperor was arraigned before a military tribunal, sentenced to death, and executed at the Cerro de las Campanas on 19 June

Carlisle pa strip club

Specially printed currency authorized by Norton was accepted as legal tender within several businesses in the city. Baldetti resigned a few days later. Archived from the original on 29 December The remainder continued with endemic constitutional monarchiesin the cases of Haiti , Mexico , and Brazil with their own resident monarch and, for places such as Canada and some island states in the Caribbean , sharing their monarch with their former metropole , the most recently created being that of Belize in Saint Kitts and Nevis".

Monarchies in the Americas:

Mendez Montenegro was the candidate of the Revolutionary Party, a center-left party that had its origins in the post-Ubico era. The present monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has its roots in the French monarchy, under the authority of which the island was first colonised inand later the British monarchy, as a Crown colony. Retrieved 1 February However a coup from within the military, backed by the Kennedy Administrationprevented the election from taking place, and forestalled a likely victory for Arevalo.

College dorm threesome homemade porn

Hookup maya yucatan in belize joshua project
Share.

COMMENTS

06.11.2018 in 15:34 Tracie

Keep up the great videos


03.11.2018 in 20:46 Tremblement

After Jon bent the knee, Dany thought she should return the favour


29.10.2018 in 19:16 Fontane

Whoops too late


02.11.2018 in 14:03 Tabled

Girl at 29.50??